What are the advantages and disadvantages of predation relationship
Aug 24, It considers predator-prey relationships relative .. Wide, open passages have the advantage of enabling large .. in spite of the potential presence and use by predators, it also has the disadvantage that wildlife passages. Apr 6, Predators alter prey dynamics by direct killing and through the costs relationship between direct predation rates and the foraging costs of antipredator responses. to test the relative importance of direct mortality and risk effects and . when an undetected predator was actually present (false negatives). In a predator-prey relationship, why doesn't the prey evolve to outmatch the one individual advantage might become a disadvantage in this new environment.
These include speed, agility, stealth, sharp senses, claws, teeth, filters, and suitable digestive systems. Many predators have acute hearing, and some such as echolocating bats hunt exclusively by active or passive use of sound. Some predators such as snakes and fish-eating birds like herons and cormorants swallow their prey whole; some snakes can unhinge their jaws to allow them to swallow large prey, while fish-eating birds have long spear-like beaks that they use to stab and grip fast-moving and slippery prey.
Lions can attack much larger prey, including elephants, but do so much less often.
Predation - Wikipedia
Predators are often highly specialized in their diet and hunting behaviour; for example, the Eurasian lynx only hunts small ungulates. When prey have a clumped uneven distribution, the optimal strategy for the predator is predicted to be more specialized as the prey are more conspicuous and can be found more quickly;  this appears to be correct for predators of immobile prey, but is doubtful with mobile prey.
This has led to a correlation between the size of predators and their prey. Size may also act as a refuge for large prey. For example, adult elephants are relatively safe from predation by lions, but juveniles are vulnerable. Members of the cat family such as the snow leopard treeless highlandstiger grassy plains, reed swampsocelot forestfishing cat waterside thicketsand lion open plains are camouflaged with coloration and disruptive patterns suiting their habitats.
Female Photuris firefliesfor example, copy the light signals of other species, thereby attracting male fireflies, which they capture and eat.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of predator-prey relationships? | Yahoo Answers
Venom and Evolution of snake venom Many smaller predators such as the box jellyfish use venom to subdue their prey,  and venom can also aid in digestion as is the case for rattlesnakes and some spiders.
These changes are explained by the fact that its prey does not need to be subdued. Antipredator adaptation To counter predation, prey have a great variety of defences. They can try to avoid detection. They can detect predators and warn others of their presence. If detected, they can try to avoid being the target of an attack, for example, by signalling that a chase would be unprofitable or by forming groups. Similar experiments with many invertebrates and small vertebrates show that antipredator responses can carry foraging costs that affect fitness Peckarsky et al.Ecological Relationships
Antipredator responses to large carnivores and the costs of response Until very recently, most discussions of predation in the context of ungulate population dynamics focused solely on direct mortality, but if predation risk affects the demography and dynamics of ungulates as it does other species Creel et al. With many common study designs for research on ungulate dynamics, risk effects are likely to be mistaken for simple bottom-up limitation by access to food Creel and Christianson Studies are needed to measure the costs of antipredator responses, which will allow us to test the relative importance of direct mortality and risk effects and to identify the factors that affect their relative importance.
Ungulates often respond to predation risk with increased vigilance and altered patterns of aggregation Prins and Iason ; Hunter and Skinner ; Caro ; Creel and Winniebut we know relatively little about the factors that cause variation in the strength of antipredator responses within and among species. Recent studies have begun to address this question. Two of 5 ungulate species in Hwange National Park altered their group sizes in response to the presence of lions Valeix et al.
Zebras increased vigilance levels in response to the immediate presence of lions, whereas wildebeest increased vigilance levels in response to variation in habitat type Periquet et al. These results suggest that the cues used to assess predation risk vary among prey species and in response to different predators: Within a species, it is possible that an entire set of antipredator responses is triggered by 1 general assessment of the current level of risk, but it is also possible that different antipredator behaviors are triggered by different risk factors.
Several studies have shown that the spatial distribution of ungulates is dependent on both habitat type risky places and the presence of predators within a habitat risky times. For example, a set of 7 ungulates in Karongwe Game Reserve selected habitats in which the likelihood of encounter with lions and leopards Panthera pardus was low and selected areas within those habitats that were less commonly used by predators Thaker et al. The local densities of 11 ungulate species in Hwange National Park were sensitive to both the long-term use of an area by lions and to the immediate presence of lions within 2 km Valeix et al.
In Hwange, local long-term predation risk had stronger effects on the distributions of browsers than on grazers Valeix et al. All of the ungulate species in the study of Valeix et al.
In contrast, elk Cervus elaphus shifted out of preferred grazing sites in open meadows into the cover of coniferous woodland in response to the immediate presence of wolves Canis lupus Creel et al. Together, these studies suggest that prey select habitats partly on the basis of structural features that modulate risk and that prey respond to coursing and stalking predators in different ways.
Open habitats may reduce the risk of predation by stalkers, whose hunting success is dependent on undetected approach Schaller ; Stander ; Carowhereas closed habitats may reduce the likelihood of being detected or attacked by coursers, for whom prey encounter rates are a strong determinant of prey selection Creel and Creel and whose hunting success is better when prey flee than when they stand their ground Kruuk ; Mills ; Creel and Creel Substantial data show that ungulate antipredator responses have consequences for fitness and population dynamics.
Predators and prey
For example, the presence of wolves caused elk to alter patterns of aggregation Creel and Winnievigilance Winnie and Creel ; Creel et al. Collectively, these studies suggest that risk effects can alter the dynamics of ungulates Creel et al. Predator and prey evolve together.
The prey is part of the predator's environment, and the predator dies if it does not get food, so it evolves whatever is necessary in order to eat the prey: Likewise, the predator is part of the prey's environment, and the prey dies if it is eaten by the predator, so it evolves whatever is necessary to avoid being eaten: This lizard abovecamoflauges by blending with the lichen on rocks, while the tortoise belowhas a hard shell to deter would-be predators.
In this snowy environment, the polar bear is white to avoid being noticed as it approaches the seal, and the seal pup is white to avoid being noticed by the bear. The fastest lions are able to catch food and eat, so they survive and reproduce, and gradually, faster lions make up more and more of the population.