Scientific Method - Vocabulary List : bornholm-sommerhus.info
Legend (fiction), words, Level K (Grade 2), Lexile L Premade vocabulary lessons at bornholm-sommerhus.info Recognize cause-and-effect relationship. [In other words: what are the three possible cause-and-effect relationships that fit How, in general, do you determine whether Z causes both X & Y? [Give the. Synonyms for cause and effect at bornholm-sommerhus.info with free online thesaurus, Seriously; The Oldest Words in English; What's the Word for how it Smells After it .
It seems to many people that causality is some existing relationship in the world that we can harness for our desires. If causality is identified with our manipulation, then this intuition is lost. In this sense, it makes humans overly central to interactions in the world.
Some attempts to defend manipulability theories are recent accounts that don't claim to reduce causality to manipulation. These accounts use manipulation as a sign or feature in causation without claiming that manipulation is more fundamental than causation. As an example, a ball moving through the air a process is contrasted with the motion of a shadow a pseudo-process. The former is causal in nature while the latter is not.
Salmon  claims that causal processes can be identified by their ability to transmit an alteration over space and time. An alteration of the ball a mark by a pen, perhaps is carried with it as the ball goes through the air. On the other hand, an alteration of the shadow insofar as it is possible will not be transmitted by the shadow as it moves along.
These theorists claim that the important concept for understanding causality is not causal relationships or causal interactions, but rather identifying causal processes. The former notions can then be defined in terms of causal processes. Science[ edit ] For the scientific investigation of efficient causality, the cause and effect are each best conceived of as temporally transient processes. Within the conceptual frame of the scientific methodan investigator sets up several distinct and contrasting temporally transient material processes that have the structure of experimentsand records candidate material responses, normally intending to determine causality in the physical world.
The quantity of carrot intake is a process that is varied from occasion to occasion. The occurrence or non-occurrence of subsequent bubonic plague is recorded.
To establish causality, the experiment must fulfill certain criteria, only one example of which is mentioned here. For example, instances of the hypothesized cause must be set up to occur at a time when the hypothesized effect is relatively unlikely in the absence of the hypothesized cause; such unlikelihood is to be established by empirical evidence.
A mere observation of a correlation is not nearly adequate to establish causality. In nearly all cases, establishment of causality relies on repetition of experiments and probabilistic reasoning. Hardly ever is causality established more firmly than as more or less probable. It is often most convenient for establishment of causality if the contrasting material states of affairs are fully comparable, and differ through only one variable factor, perhaps measured by a real number. Otherwise, experiments are usually difficult or impossible to interpret.
In some sciences, it is very difficult or nearly impossible to set up material states of affairs that closely test hypotheses of causality. Such sciences can in some sense be regarded as "softer".
Causality physics One has to be careful in the use of the word cause in physics. Properly speaking, the hypothesized cause and the hypothesized effect are each temporally transient processes.
For example, force is a useful concept for the explanation of acceleration, but force is not by itself a cause.
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- Correlation does not imply causation
For example, a temporally transient process might be characterized by a definite change of force at a definite time. Such a process can be regarded as a cause. Causality is not inherently implied in equations of motionbut postulated as an additional constraint that needs to be satisfied i. This constraint has mathematical implications  such as the Kramers-Kronig relations.
Causality is one of the most fundamental and essential notions of physics. Otherwise, reference coordinate systems could be constructed using the Lorentz transform of special relativity in which an observer would see an effect precede its cause i.
Causal notions appear in the context of the flow of mass-energy. For example, it is commonplace to argue that causal efficacy can be propagated by waves such as electromagnetic waves only if they propagate no faster than light.
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Wave packets have group velocity and phase velocity. For waves that propagate causal efficacy, both of these must travel no faster than light. Thus light waves often propagate causal efficacy but de Broglie waves often have phase velocity faster than light and consequently cannot be propagating causal efficacy.
Causal notions are important in general relativity to the extent that the existence of an arrow of time demands that the universe's semi-Riemannian manifold be orientable, so that "future" and "past" are globally definable quantities.
Engineering[ edit ] A causal system is a system with output and internal states that depends only on the current and previous input values. A system that has some dependence on input values from the future in addition to possible past or current input values is termed an acausal system, and a system that depends solely on future input values is an anticausal system.
Noticeable symptoms came later, giving the impression that the lice left before the person got sick. One making an argument based on these two phenomena must however be careful to avoid the fallacy of circular cause and consequence. Poverty is a cause of lack of education, but it is not the sole cause, and vice versa.
Third factor C the common-causal variable causes both A and B[ edit ] Main article: Spurious relationship The third-cause fallacy also known as ignoring a common cause  or questionable cause  is a logical fallacy where a spurious relationship is confused for causation. It is a variation on the post hoc ergo propter hoc fallacy and a member of the questionable cause group of fallacies. All of these examples deal with a lurking variablewhich is simply a hidden third variable that affects both causes of the correlation.
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Example 1 Sleeping with one's shoes on is strongly correlated with waking up with a headache. Therefore, sleeping with one's shoes on causes headache. The above example commits the correlation-implies-causation fallacy, as it prematurely concludes that sleeping with one's shoes on causes headache.
A more plausible explanation is that both are caused by a third factor, in this case going to bed drunkwhich thereby gives rise to a correlation. So the conclusion is false. Example 2 Young children who sleep with the light on are much more likely to develop myopia in later life.
Therefore, sleeping with the light on causes myopia. This is a scientific example that resulted from a study at the University of Pennsylvania Medical Center. Published in the May 13, issue of Nature the study received much coverage at the time in the popular press.
It did find a strong link between parental myopia and the development of child myopia, also noting that myopic parents were more likely to leave a light on in their children's bedroom. Example 3 As ice cream sales increase, the rate of drowning deaths increases sharply. Therefore, ice cream consumption causes drowning. This example fails to recognize the importance of time of year and temperature to ice cream sales.
Ice cream is sold during the hot summer months at a much greater rate than during colder times, and it is during these hot summer months that people are more likely to engage in activities involving water, such as swimming. The increased drowning deaths are simply caused by more exposure to water-based activities, not ice cream. The stated conclusion is false.
This suggests a possible "third variable" problem, however, when three such closely related measures are found, it further suggests that each may have bidirectional tendencies see " bidirectional variable ", abovebeing a cluster of correlated values each influencing one another to some extent.
Therefore, the simple conclusion above may be false. Example 5 Since the s, both the atmospheric CO2 level and obesity levels have increased sharply.
Hence, atmospheric CO2 causes obesity.
Richer populations tend to eat more food and produce more CO2. Example 6 HDL "good" cholesterol is negatively correlated with incidence of heart attack. Therefore, taking medication to raise HDL decreases the chance of having a heart attack. Further research  has called this conclusion into question. Instead, it may be that other underlying factors, like genes, diet and exercise, affect both HDL levels and the likelihood of having a heart attack; it is possible that medicines may affect the directly measurable factor, HDL levels, without affecting the chance of heart attack.cause and effect / signal words
A causes B, and B causes A[ edit ] Causality is not necessarily one-way; in a predator-prey relationshippredator numbers affect prey numbers, but prey numbers, i.
Another well-known example is that cyclists have a lower Body Mass Index than people who do not cycle. This is often explained by assuming that cycling increases physical activity levels and therefore decreases BMI.