Hammerschmidt Villa - Wikipedia
as they don't follow a linear relation between viscosity and . For more details about the apparatus, see Hammerschmidt. . ˙. Burscheid (Germany). bornholm-sommerhus.info walk on the wild bornholm-sommerhus.info island baby. commemorating Lou Reed & Nico & Velvet Underground PBP. iCLOUD. Dr. Thomas Hammerschmidt It aims to identify their relation to elementary processes that determine the material properties on larger length and time scales .
Within this governmental district, the city of Bonn is an district in its own right. The urban district of Bonn is then divided into four administrative municipal districts. These are Bonn, Bonn-Bad Godesberg, Bonn-Beuel and Bonn-Hardtberg, inthe independent towns of Bad Godesberg and Beuel as well as several villages were incorporated into Bonn, resulting in a city more than twice as large as before. In the south of the Cologne lowland in the Rhine valley, the history of the city dates back to Roman times.
In about 12 BC, the Roman army appears to have stationed a small unit in what is presently the historical centre of the city, even earlier, the army had resettled members of a Germanic tribal group allied with Rome, the Ubii, in Bonn.
The Latin name for that settlement, Bonna, may stem from the population of this and many other settlements in the area. The Eburoni were members of a tribal coalition effectively wiped out during the final phase of Caesars War in Gaul.
After several decades, the gave up the small camp linked to the Ubii-settlement 7. Nobel Prize — The Nobel Prize is a set of annual international awards bestowed in a number of categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.
The will of the Swedish inventor Alfred Nobel established the prizes inthe prizes in Chemistry, Literature, Peace, Physics, and Physiology or Medicine were first awarded in Medals made before were struck in 23 carat gold, between andthe Nobel Prizes and the Prize in Economic Sciences were awarded times to people and organisations.
With some receiving the Nobel Prize more than once, this makes a total of 23 organisations, the prize ceremonies take place annually in Stockholm, Sweden. Each recipient, or laureate, receives a medal, a diploma. The Nobel Prize is widely regarded as the most prestigious award available in the fields of literature, medicine, physics, chemistry, peace, and economics. The prize is not awarded posthumously, however, if a person is awarded a prize and dies before receiving it, though the average number of laureates per prize increased substantially during the 20th century, a prize may not be shared among more than three people.
Alfred Nobel was born on 21 October in Stockholm, Sweden and he was a chemist, engineer, and inventor. InNobel purchased the Bofors iron and steel mill and this invention was a precursor to many smokeless military explosives, especially the British smokeless powder cordite. As a consequence of his patent claims, Nobel was eventually involved in a patent infringement lawsuit over cordite, Nobel amassed a fortune during his lifetime, with most of his wealth from his inventions, of which dynamite is the most famous.
InNobel was astonished to read his own obituary, titled The merchant of death is dead, as it was Alfreds brother Ludvig who had died, the obituary was eight years premature.
The article disconcerted Nobel and made him apprehensive about how he would be remembered and this inspired him to change his will. Because of skepticism surrounding the will, it was not until 26 April that it was approved by the Storting in Norway. The executors of Nobels will, Ragnar Sohlman and Rudolf Lilljequist, formed the Nobel Foundation to take care of Nobels fortune, Nobels instructions named a Norwegian Nobel Committee to award the Peace Prize, the members of whom were appointed shortly after the will was approved in April Soon thereafter, the other prize-awarding organisations were designated or established and these were Karolinska Institutet on 7 June, the Swedish Academy on 9 June, and the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on 11 June.
The Nobel Foundation reached an agreement on guidelines for how the prizes should be awarded, and, ininthe personal union between Sweden and Norway was dissolved 8. The family arose in the area around the town of Hechingen in Swabia during the 11th century, the first ancestor of the Hohenzollerns was mentioned in They may have derived from the Burchardinger dynasty, the Hohenzollern family split into two branches, the Catholic Swabian branch and the Protestant Franconian branch, which later became the Brandenburg-Prussian branch.
The Swabian branch ruled the principalities of Hohenzollern-Hechingen and Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen untilmembers of the Franconian branch became Margrave of Brandenburg in and Duke of Prussia in The Margraviate of Brandenburg and the Duchy of Prussia were ruled in personal union after and were called Brandenburg-Prussia, germanys defeat in World War I in led to the German Revolution.
The Hohenzollerns were overthrown and the Weimar Republic was established, thus bringing an end to the German monarchy, Georg Friedrich, Prince of Prussia is the current head of the royal Prussian line, while Karl Friedrich, Prince of Hohenzollern is the head of the princely Swabian line. Zollern, from Hohenzollern, was a county of the Holy Roman Empire and its ruling dynasty was first mentioned in The Hohenzollerns named their estates after Hohenzollern Castle in the Swabian Alps, the Hohenzollern Castle still belongs to the family today.
As loyal vassals of the Swabian Hohenstaufen dynasty, they were able to enlarge their territory. In the burgraviate passed to Fredericks younger son Conrad I, he became the ancestor of the Franconian Hohenzollern branch. Since then the name has been Hohenzollern. Beginning in the 16th century, this branch of the family became Protestant and decided on expansion through marriage, the family supported the Hohenstaufen and Habsburg rulers of the Holy Roman Empire during the 12th to 15th centuries, being rewarded with several territorial grants.
It can also be considered a subcontinent of the Americas. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, and to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea.
North America covers an area of about 24, square kilometers, about North America is the third largest continent by area, following Asia and Africa, and the fourth by population after Asia, Africa, and Europe. Inits population was estimated at nearly million people in 23 independent states, or about 7. The so-called Paleo-Indian period is taken to have lasted until about 10, years ago, the Classic stage spans roughly the 6th to 13th centuries.
The Pre-Columbian era ended with the migrations and the arrival of European settlers during the Age of Discovery. Present-day cultural and ethnic patterns reflect different kind of interactions between European colonists, indigenous peoples, African slaves and their descendants, European influences are strongest in the northern parts of the continent while indigenous and African influences are relatively stronger in the south. Vespucci, who explored South America between andwas the first European to suggest that the Americas were not the East Indies, but a different landmass previously unknown by Europeans.
He used the Latinized version of Vespuccis name, but in its feminine form America, following the examples of Europa, Asia and Africa. Later, other mapmakers extended the name America to the continent, In Some argue that the convention is to use the surname for naming discoveries except in the case of royalty, a minutely explored belief that has been advanced is that America was named for a Spanish sailor bearing the ancient Visigothic name of Amairick.
Another is that the name is rooted in a Native American language, the term North America maintains various definitions in accordance with location and context. In Canadian English, North America may be used to refer to the United States, alternatively, usage sometimes includes Greenland and Mexico, as well as offshore islands South Africa is the 25th-largest country in the world by land area and it is the southernmost country on the mainland of the Old World or the Eastern Hemisphere.
About 80 percent of South Africans are of Sub-Saharan African ancestry, divided among a variety of ethnic groups speaking different Bantu languages, the remaining population consists of Africas largest communities of European, Asian, and multiracial ancestry.
South Africa is a multiethnic society encompassing a variety of cultures, languages. Its pluralistic makeup is reflected in the recognition of 11 official languages. During the 20th century, the black majority sought to recover its rights from the dominant white minority, with this struggle playing a role in the countrys recent history. The National Party imposed apartheid ininstitutionalising previous racial segregation, sinceall ethnic and linguistic groups have held political representation in the countrys democracy, which comprises a parliamentary republic and nine provinces.
South Africa is often referred to as the Rainbow Nation to describe the multicultural diversity. The World Bank classifies South Africa as an economy. Its economy is the second-largest in Africa, and the 34th-largest in the world, in terms of purchasing power parity, South Africa has the seventh-highest per capita income in Africa.
However, poverty and inequality remain widespread, with about a quarter of the population unemployed, nevertheless, South Africa has been identified as a middle power in international affairs, and maintains significant regional influence. The name South Africa is derived from the geographic location at the southern tip of Africa.
Upon formation the country was named the Union of South Africa in English, since the long form name in English has been the Republic of South Africa. In Dutch the country was named Republiek van Zuid-Afrika, replaced in by the Afrikaans Republiek van Suid-Afrika, since the Republic has had an official name in each of its 11 official languages.
- Alexander Eugen Conrady
- Hammerschmidt Villa
Mzansi, derived from the Xhosa noun umzantsi meaning south, is a name for South Africa. South Africa contains some of the oldest archaeological and human fossil sites in the world, extensive fossil remains have been recovered from a series of caves in Gauteng Province. Optics — Optics is the branch of physics which involves the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it.
Optics usually describes the behaviour of visible, ultraviolet, and infrared light, because light is an electromagnetic wave, other forms of electromagnetic radiation such as X-rays, microwaves, and radio waves exhibit similar properties.
Alexander Eugen Conrady - WikiVividly
Most optical phenomena can be accounted for using the classical description of light. Complete electromagnetic descriptions of light are, however, often difficult to apply in practice, practical optics is usually done using simplified models.
The most common of these, geometric optics, treats light as a collection of rays that travel in straight lines, physical optics is a more comprehensive model of light, which includes wave effects such as diffraction and interference that cannot be accounted for in geometric optics. Historically, the model of light was developed first, followed by the wave model of light.
Progress in electromagnetic theory in the 19th century led to the discovery that waves were in fact electromagnetic radiation. Some phenomena depend on the fact that light has both wave-like and particle-like properties, explanation of these effects requires quantum mechanics. When considering lights particle-like properties, the light is modelled as a collection of particles called photons, quantum optics deals with the application of quantum mechanics to optical systems.
Optical science is relevant to and studied in many related disciplines including astronomy, various engineering fields, photography, practical applications of optics are found in a variety of technologies and everyday objects, including mirrors, lenses, telescopes, microscopes, lasers, and fibre optics. Greek philosophy on optics broke down into two opposing theories on how vision worked, the theory and the emission theory. The intro-mission approach saw vision as coming from objects casting off copies of themselves that were captured by the eye, plato first articulated the emission theory, the idea that visual perception is accomplished by rays emitted by the eyes.
He also commented on the parity reversal of mirrors in Timaeus, some hundred years later, Euclid wrote a treatise entitled Optics where he linked vision to geometry, creating geometrical optics.
Ptolemy, in his treatise Optics, held a theory of vision, the rays from the eye formed a cone, the vertex being within the eye. He summarised much of Euclid and went on to describe a way to measure the angle of refraction, during the Middle Ages, Greek ideas about optics were resurrected and extended by writers in the Muslim world Astronomy — Astronomy is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.
It applies mathematics, physics, and chemistry, in an effort to explain the origin of those objects and phenomena and their evolution. Objects of interest include planets, moons, stars, galaxies, and comets, while the phenomena include supernovae explosions, gamma ray bursts, more generally, all astronomical phenomena that originate outside Earths atmosphere are within the purview of astronomy.
A related but distinct subject, physical cosmology, is concerned with the study of the Universe as a whole, Astronomy is the oldest of the natural sciences. The early civilizations in recorded history, such as the Babylonians, Greeks, Indians, Egyptians, Nubians, Iranians, Chinese, during the 20th century, the field of professional astronomy split into observational and theoretical branches. Observational astronomy is focused on acquiring data from observations of astronomical objects, theoretical astronomy is oriented toward the development of computer or analytical models to describe astronomical objects and phenomena.
The two fields complement each other, with theoretical astronomy seeking to explain the results and observations being used to confirm theoretical results. Astronomy is one of the few sciences where amateurs can play an active role, especially in the discovery. Amateur astronomers have made and contributed to many important astronomical discoveries, Astronomy means law of the stars.
Shortly thereafter, Nicholas Francis too fled into exile and abdicated his claims, which were now taken up again by Charles. In Charles IV was approached by an Irish delegation who were seeking his support to defend Ireland from the invasion of the Parliamentarian army of England.
In the summer ofa number of ships sent by Charles arrived at Inishbofin island with supplies, unfortunately Charles faced great opposition by the Irish Leaders Clanricarde and Ormonde, both of whom were arch-royalists loyal to Charles II of England. Lorraine eventually concluded that Ireland had been destroyed by the jealousy of those who desired the loss of it, inthe French withdrew from Lorraine, and Charles was able to return to the Duchy for the first time.
The duchy was not restored to his family more than twenty years later. She died two weeks after this second marriage, Charles married a fourth time at the age of She was the wife of Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange, early years, Amalia of Solms-Braunfels, born into the House of Solms, a ruling family with Imperial immediacy, spent her childhood at the parental castle at Braunfels. She became part of the train of Elizabeth, wife of Frederick V, Elector Palatine, after imperial forces defeated Frederick V, she fled from Prague with the pregnant queen to the west.
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Shelter was denied to them along the way because the emperor forbade it as Frederick had been placed under an Imperial ban and they often appeared at his court, where Maurices younger half-brother Frederick Henry became infatuated with Amalia in She refused to become his lover and held out for marriage, when Maurice of Nassau died, he made his half-brother Frederick Henry promise to wed. They had several palaces built, including Huis ten Bosch, Amalia was a great collector of art and amassed many jewels, which were inherited by her four surviving daughters.
She was described as intelligent, arrogant and ambitious, not beautiful but with a fresh, Amalia was the prime mover of several royal marriages, including that of her son William II to Mary, Princess Royal of England and Scotland and of their daughters with several German princes.
She had an influence upon policy, she acted as the political advisor of Frederick. Her influence is regarded to have contributed to the Peace of Westphalia inas a recognition, King Philip IV of Spain granted her the area around Turnhout in Amritsar at that time was the centre of Sikh faith, Guru Tegh Bahadur was brought up in Sikh culture and trained in archery and horsemanship.
He was also taught the old classics and he underwent prolonged spells of seclusion and contemplation. Bakala, as described in Gurbilas Dasvin Patishahi, was then a town with many beautiful pools, wells.
After Guru Hargobinds death, Tegh Bahadur continued to live in Bakala with his wife and he spent most of his time in meditation, but was not a recluse, and attended to family responsibilities. When asked by his followers who would lead them after him, he replied Baba Bakala, taking the advantage of the ambiguity in the words of the dying Guru, many installed themselves in Bakala, claiming themselves as the new Guru.
Sikhs were puzzled to see so many claimants, the Sikh tradition has a legend on how Tegh Bahadur was selected the ninth guru. A wealthy trader, Baba Makhan Shah Labana, had prayed for his life and had promised to gift gold coins to the Sikh guru if he survived. He arrived in search of the ninth Guru, every guru he met accepted the 2 gold coins and bid him farewell. Then he discovered that Tegh Bahadur also lived at Bakala, Labana gifted Tegh Bahadur the usual offering of two gold coins.
Tegh Bahadur gave him his blessings and remarked that his offering was considerably short of the five hundred.
Makhan Shah Labana forthwith made good the difference and ran upstairs and he began shouting from the rooftop, Guru ladho re, Guru ladho re meaning I have found the Guru, I have found the Guru.
Erasmus de Bie — Erasmus de Bie was a Flemish painter known for his city views and landscapes. Very little is known about the life of Erasmus de Bie and he was born in Antwerp as the son of the painter Frans de Bie the Elder. He was baptised on 20 December in the St.
Erasmus de Bie had pupils in and in of whom one was his son Frans and he is known for his architectural paintings, in particular city scenes, genre scenes and landscapes in an Italianate style. He is also mentioned as the creator of religious scenes and compositions with animals and his surviving signatures are in capital letters, ED BIE.
His main specialty was the composition of animated landscapes, in particular of city squares and he collaborated with other artists in Antwerp for whom he painted the staffage. He is also mentioned as the author of at least one winterscape and his composition The Ommegang in Antwerp was reinterpreted by various Flemish artists including Alexander van Bredael.
It may itself have been inspired by Pieter van Aelsts painting with the same theme, media related to Erasmus de Bie at Wikimedia Commons 7. Blaxton was born in Horncastle, Lincolnshire, England and attended Cambridge University, earning a degree in He then became an Anglican priest, although he had disagreements with the church. This led to his decision to join the failed Gorges expedition to America in and he arrived in modern-day Weymouth, Massachusetts in as a chaplain in the Robert Gorges expedition.
Most of his fellow travelers returned to England inand he became the first European to settle in Boston, the Puritans landed in nearby Charlestown inand in Blackstone invited them to settle on his land in Boston after they had problems finding potable water. The Puritans then granted him 50 acres of his own land, Blackstone was the first European settler in Rhode Island inbefore Roger Williams established Providence Plantation the next year.
Blackstones home and farm were located in what is now Cumberland, Blackstone called his home Study Hill, he was said to have the largest library in the colonies at the time. He tended cattle, planted gardens, and cultivated an apple orchard and he cultivated the first variety of American apples, the Yellow Sweeting. Roger Williams and Blackstone disagreed on theological matters, but both agreed on the right to disagree, and Williams invited Blackstone to regularly preach to his followers in Providence.
Blackstone continued preaching in various parts of Rhode Island and is considered to be the pioneer clergyman of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States and he preached his brand of tolerant Christianity to American Indians under an oak tree that became an inspiration to Christians worldwide.
When he preached in Cumberland, he did it under an oak tree near his home. The tree survived for centuries until the Hurricane of toppled it, Blackstone briefly returned to Boston in riding on a bull.