Evidence that personality traits are related to health behaviours and health . not designed with specific knowledge of brain/behavior relationships in mind, and. These advantages are partly explained by the better health behaviors, good social relationships, and less stress that tend to characterize those who are more . understand personality, relationships, and health; links among personality, the relationship context of health and relationship researchers to consider.
For example, most people are type B, but they are not competitive, stressful, worried and hard to annoy, but have heart disease due to smoking or drinking alcohol or accident. They love enthusiasm and are often impatient and difficult because of being a fattening type of personality. However, not only the type A personality is impatient but also type B personality. In addition, some persons can be both type A and B at the same time, it is irrelevant whether type A and B are related, what matters is that one person can become both type of personality.
Moreover, many researchers argue that, is not only two-type of personality. A personality type is very broad and many, for example, type C and D personalities. According to Carbonell state that, type C personality is a person with cautious, competed, careful, compliant, contemplative and calculating.
In clinical psychology and heart disease, written by Molinari, Compare, and Parati, shows that, D personality type is an individual who feel anxious, unhappy, worry and have pessimistic vision of life and they can easily get irritated The big five personality traits The characters emotional instability, tend to be stressed, anxious, worrisome, restless and changeable, Openness Nightmare, aesthetics, emotion, performance, information and values Conscientiousness Capability, command, dutifulness, and success determined, self-control, and reflection Extraversion sociability, ferociousness, action, excitement-seeking, optimistic emotion Agreeable conviction, honesty, unselfishness, disobedience, humility, and caring, mindedness One of the major factors in personality traits, which relate to stress level upon individual, is neuroticism.
According to Eysenck in woodneuroticism are people who are highly measured on emotional instability, tend to be stressed, anxious, worrisome, restless and changeable, while those who are low in neuroticism tend to be relaxed, stay peaceful, displeasure and stable. However, other researchers analyse openness, conscientiousness, extraversion and agreeable.
However, openness is one of the factors of personality traits, which indicate how open-minded a person is. The preserver on the other hand, which is Openness- traits are useful for plan managers, practical scientists, theatre performers, and sponsorship managers Costa,McCrae, in Buchannan and Huczynski, Furthermore, conscientiousness is also one of the personality traits that have traits such as capability, command, dutifulness, success determined, self-control, and reflection sprint from determined to flexible determined conscientiousness plus traits which are useful for leaders, senior executives and other high achievers, while flexible conscientiousness minus traits are useful for researchers, detectives and management consultant.
While on the other hand, extraversion is part of personality traits that relate to human behaviours.
Personality and health: Road to well-being
The characters related to extraversion are sociability, ferociousness, action, excitement-seeking, and optimistic emotion. Lucas et al, in comprehensive handbook of personality and psychopathology written by Thomas, state that extraverts and hospitality are consequences of satisfying people in organisation. They also argued that extraverts have tendency in the direction of antagonism and power in organisational behaviour. Therefore, social behaviours in organisation are a means of satisfying the need of rewarding personality in organisation.
Agreeableness is referring to human being capability to get along among other people in organisation. Agreeableness causes a number of people to become moderate, helpful, pardoning, and considerate and good nature in their communication with other people in the workplace Griffin, He also argued that highly agreeable persons would have a superior working relationship with other colleague, contributory and sophisticated manager in organisation than those with less agreeableness.
It is clear that those with high agreeable behaviour will not have fastidious good working relationship with internal and external persons in organisation Costa and McCrae, The reason why the five big factors of personality traits relates to stress level in organisational and individual is that it contains several factors of symptoms personality traits.
For example, neuroticism is one of the factors that have negative emotional unstableness, which connects to introvert-neurotic and extravert-neurotic. Introvert-neuroticism has eight characters, which are calmness, unsociable, shyness, unenthusiastic, serious, inflexible, nervous and unstable. While extravert-neurotic have eight characters as well such as aggressive, restless, quick-tempered, excitable, changeable, impulsive, optimistic and active Costa,McCrae, in Buchannan and Huczynski, One of the main reasons for management strategies is to reduce the stress levels on employees.
Lehrer, et al, define stress management as a set of techniques used to help an individual to cope more effectively with difficult situation in order for them to feel good emotionally, improve behavioural skills and to enhance the feeling of the organisation. However, Cunninghamstates that stress management is define as interventions design to reduce the impact of stressors in workplace.
Greenberg and Baron argued that pressure stems from many diverse factors and circumstances with the intention of eliminating it entirely from our lives. However, they state that organisations or companies still have many things to do in order to help reduce the stress level on employees. It is quite accepte for them to bring in different organized programs to help employees reduce and stop the stress levels. The reasons for these assumption is to help the employees minimize the adverse reactions to stress, so that they will be better, present, and consequently more industrious on the work which in return have positive effects on the foundation line of the organisations.
Personality and Health - Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Psychology
It is clear that many companies in the world today have professionals in each program design to help manage the stress level of employee. The systematic programs designed to reduce the stress on employees are stress management programs, wellness programs and presents programs.
That is to say, that the systematic programs designed for management is helpful to reduce the stress level on employees. In conclusion, types A personality seem to have link with behavioural syndrome than type B. However, much research has be conduct by different psychologies with different types of personalities; argue that is not only type A and B personality, but also type C and D personality.
It is hard to conclude personality type with accuracy, For example, Schill argue that type B personality is impatient while the research conduct by Friedman and Rosenman in Buchannan and Huczyski, state that B personality are patient.
Not clear which part of personality types that cause stress level in organisation and individual. The correlation data-cannot assume causal link between the variables. In order to improve Friedman and Rosenman research there is a need to identify other types of personality and eliminate stress.
Research companion to organisational health psychology. Edward Elgar Blonna, R. Stress less live more. New harbinger Bury, M. Pearson Education Cunningham B, J. The stress management sourcebook. Blood, yellow bile, black bile, and phlegm. Each was the result of an excess of one of the humors that produced, in turn, the imbalance in paired qualities. The moot question to be answered is as to what determines this sense of satisfaction and happiness. A review by Dienner et al.
Personality and health: Road to well-being
Some of the personality factors like low on neuroticism and high in affiliation, perceived control feel positive and optimistic. This model achieved wide popularity in health-related research. The acceptance of this model was qualified because of comprehensive understanding of a personality. In recent decades, health-related researches and health care have focused on negative mental processes such as psychological distress and dysfunction, while positive mental processes such as psychological well-being have been much less studied.
Factor analysis approach of understanding personality acquired significance after Cattell's work in the field. Tellegen's higher-order dimensions relate to components of the Big Five hierarchically.
Negative emotionality encompasses Big Five neuroticism and agreeableness, positive emotionality encompasses extraversion and the surgent aspect of conscientiousness, and CN encompasses the controlled aspect of conscientiousness and much of openness to experience. McCrae[ 22 ] five dimensions of sociability, activity, aggression hostility, impulsive sensation seeking, and neuroticism-anxiety also relate to these groups.
The five personality factors — Neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness — are the main focus of FFM.
Neuroticism as a factor of personality is related to low self esteem, irrational perfectionistic beliefs, and pessimistic attitudes. Extraversion is related to varied interests and social dimension Openness to experience refers to need for variety, novelty, and change. Agreeableness is related to forgiving attitudes, belief in cooperation.
Conscientiousness is related to organized support network, technical expertise. Among the five factors, neuroticism is shown to be related to psychopathology. Subjective Well Being SWB was evaluated and correlated with personality factors; positive relationship was noted to be present between extraversion and SWB, and negative relationship between neuroticism and SWB.
In respect to mental health and well-being, well-being variables such as gratitude are positively correlated with extraversion, agreeableness, openness, and conscientiousness, and negatively correlated with neuroticism. Neuroticism was most consistently related to worse subjective health outcomes, while out of 3 health related personality constructs, negative experience was related to worse and optimistic control to better subjective health outcomes.
Temperament and character inventory TCI is based on synthesis of information from family studies, and data from various resources being genetic and environmental in nature. There are four temperaments harm avoidance, novelty seeking, reward dependence, and persistence and three character domains self directedness, cooperativeness, and self transcendence.
The interaction between these four temperament and three character domains gives very elaborate ptofile of an individual. TCI has been applied to measure mental health, psychopathology, personality and well being These traits have strong effects on the perception of well being.
Neuroticism may contribute to both diathesis and stress, providing vulnerability through both reactive and evocative person environment interactions.
Multiple prospective, longitudinal studies have confirmed that dependent cognitions and behaviors result in increased feelings of depression in reaction to interpersonal loss or rejection. The dependent traits of neediness, clinging, preoccupation with fears of loss, and excessive reassurance seeking can also evoke a disengagement and rejection by others.
Individuals with susceptibility to stress show strongest correlation between stress and drinking. The most severe alcohol problems have been reported in individuals who are characterized by both high levels of negative affect, low levels of CN, and high sensation seeking.
In these models, personality variables are viewed in the context of mediating and moderating relationships. Studies carried ou on health related variables found certain personality constructs implied in positive health behaviors. Some of them to be worth mentioning are optimism, anger control and inhibition. On five factor model conscientiousness have been consistently associated with health behaviors. On the other hand higher scores on neuroticism or negative affect are associated with perceived poor health and reporting of more symptoms.
It is worth mentioning that conscientiousness has also been associated with less tobacco use and alcohol consumption.
Behavioral under-control denotes a broad range of interrelated behaviors that collectively reflect the difficulty in inhibiting behavioral impulses. Behavioral under-control is expressed through not only normal range variation in personality, such as impulsivity, low CN, or high risk taking, but also by more pathological conditions such as conduct disorder and antisocial personality disorder.
Behavior problems including behavioral under-control i. People of tense temperament resort to drinking as alcohol calms their inner anxiety and helps them to relax. A study done by Dudley et al. A number of models in the area of addiction, however, place personality variables into the nexus of other etiological constructs. Even in risk-taking behavior, unstable extroverts are more likely than other personality types to engage in behavior that places them at risk for HIV infection.
For them, immediacy of the reward of sex is more important, they are noted to be remarkably inattentive to the risk of acquiring an infection. They are more likely to experiment with different kinds of drugs and to use greater quantities.
Unstable introverts are anxious, moody, and pessimistic. Similarly, nonadherence is more common among extroverted or unstable patients. The same personality characteristics that place them at risk for HIV also reduce their ability to adhere to demanding drug regimens.
The mercurial emotions of unstable extroverted patients interfere with compliance to drugs. Optimism is considered to be instrumental in problem-focused coping strategies; optimists turn to adaptive emotion-focused coping strategies such as acceptance, use of humor, and positive reframing.
Pessimists tend to cope through overt denial and by disengaging from the goals. A positive coping skill is an indicator of mental health. The positive mental health aspect of personality dimensions are less discussed. The facets of personality found to be implied in mental health are positive emotionality conscientiousness and behavioral control.
Understanding of these dimensions will help in identification and modification of the personality, thereby enhancing mental health. The five-factor model of personality as a framework for personality-health research. J Pers Soc Psychol. Advantages and limitations of the five-factor model. Public knowledge and beliefs about mental disorders.