Biography for Kids: Mikhail Gorbachev
The family, which included older son Neil Reagan (), resided in an . a diplomatic relationship with the reform-minded Mikhail Gorbachev (). Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (born 2 March ) is a Russian and formerly Soviet He was widely praised in the West for his pivotal role in ending the Cold War, After the war, Gorbachev's parents had their second son, Aleksandr, in ; .. The US's rejection of the Gorbachev proposal, particularly Reagan's. Meeting in Geneva, President Ronald Reagan and Soviet leader Mikhail signal of his desire to obtain better relations with the United States so that he could . the first public allegations of sexual misconduct with a minor child were aired.
The Raisa and Mikhail show, however, was bitterly resented at home. He was betraying the revolution; she was pilloried for being vain and extravagant. A secret video was supposedly shot of Raisa using an American Express Gold Card to buy a pair of Cartier earrings while on an official visit to London.
Mikhail was digging into the murky Soviet past and unsettling the Communist party apparatchiks; Raisa turned up to visit victims of the Armenian earthquake dressed in fox furs as if she was going to a first night at the Bolshoi. As Mikhail's reforms became mired in Kremlin infighting and failed to boost the Soviet economy, Raisa was accused of creating a cult of personality and interfering in political decisions.
When an attempted coup failed to unseat Mikhail in Augustthe west sympathised with the ailing Raisa, who had apparently suffered a minor stroke while imprisoned in the Crimea. In contrast, the Soviets thought that the First Lady they never wanted had got her just deserts. Only in the final months of her life, as she battled with leukaemia in a German hospital, her husband constantly at her bedside, did the Russian people finally show sympathy to Raisa, the wife of the last, and possibly most hated, leader of the Soviet Union.
While her husband was in power, Raisa discouraged any probing into her past.
She refused to release biographical details or personal photographs to the press, and, contrary to the spirit of glasnost, banned a book of Raisa jokes from being published. It was a mistake which encouraged damaging rumours. Her enemies claimed she was Jewish or a Tartar; there were even suggestions that she had slept with Leonid Brezhnev in an effort to promote her husband's career.
There were other, more sympathetic, stories - one of which claimed that Raisa's father was a prominent Ukrainian expert on collectivisation, who had fallen foul of Stalin during the s and spent much of the next 20 years in the Gulag. Yet, although it was true that her family had been denounced as kulaks rich peasants under Stalin, and her grandfather's property had been confiscated, Raisa experienced a relatively normal childhood in the pre-war Soviet Union.
Raisa Maksimovna Titorenko was born in a village in western Siberia.
Her mother was a peasant, illiterate until her 20s; her father was a railway worker who had moved from the Ukraine to work on railway construction in the Altai region. Raisa, their first child, was christened in the Orthodox faith but grew up into the model Soviet schoolgirl. The family moved frequently around the Urals region, but she graduated from secondary school with a gold medal, which allowed her automatic entry to any institute of higher education.
Inshe chose to study philosophy at Moscow State University. Two years later, Raisa met a young law student, Mikhail Gorbachev, at a student club. In his memoirs he describes being bowled over by meeting his "destiny", but Raisa was unimpressed, almost indifferent to the Komsomol young communist activist from Stavropol, in south-west Russia, who was a year behind her at university.
Talking "to" People, Not "About" Them
Mikhail spent two months trying to win her attention. In Decemberhe finally managed to walk her home.
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- Mikhail Gorbachev
Raisa tried to end their burgeoning romance, hinting at an unhappy relationship which had recently ended, but Mikhail persisted and on September 25,they were married. The wedding celebrations took place six weeks later on November 7, the 34th anniversary of the Bolshevik revolution.
The bride wore a white dress of Italian crepe; the groom a suit made of "shock worker" fabric. Unable to obtain a family room, the couple spent their first months of married life in separate rooms in a student hostel on the Lenin Hills.
However, emboldened by the post-Stalin thaw, the Moscow University Komsomol protested to the rector over his treatment of married students, and as a result the Gorbachevs were finally given a room together. Raisa graduated in and immediately began work on her doctoral thesis. On his graduation a year later, Mikhail turned down the opportunity to do postgraduate work in the department of collective farm law, and was assigned to the Soviet procurator's office in Moscow. He was offered work in the provinces or in Tadjikistan in central Asia; the couple decided to go to Stavropol instead.
Here Mikhail had a job at the prosecutor's office, but within two weeks he had left to become deputy head of agitation and propaganda for the regional Komsomol organisation. Raisa spent four years as a part-time lecturer on Marxist-Leninist philosophy - a compulsory subject for all students - at local institutes of higher education and at collective farms.
An outsider, whose education in the capital was resented by other staff, she finally got a full-time job and used her lectures to discuss Kant, Hegel, Lenin and, on occasion, ethics and the history of religion and atheism.
InIrina, the Gorbachevs' only child, was born.
InMikhail Gorbachev was elected first secretary of the Stavropol region Communist party, a post equivalent to an American state governorship.
Raisa continued her research into collective farm society until, inher husband was elected as secretary of the central committee of the CPSU and the Gorbachevs moved back to Moscow.
In the s and early s the wives of the Soviet leadership kept a low profile. Two of his sisters and an uncle died during the famine. In his grandfather was arrested for supporting the followers of Leon Trotsky. In Mikhail went to Moscow University where he received a degree in law. He became the leader of the division in Stavropol. In he was selected to be the delegate for Stavropol at the 22nd Communist Party Congress in Moscow.
Over the next several years Gorbachev became a leader in the Communist Party. First, inhe became First Secretary for the entire Stavropol territory. Then, inhe moved to Moscow as the Secretary of Agriculture.
Mikhail quickly became a force in Moscow gaining influence with such powerful leaders as Yuri Andropov KGB leader who later became leader of the Soviet Union. In Gorbachev was selected to be a member of the Politburo, the most powerful group in the Communist Party. He was the youngest member of the Politburo. Becoming the Leader of the Soviet Union Within a few short years, Gorbachev gained considerable influence on the Politburo. After two aging leaders died in andthe Communist Party wanted someone young and healthy to take over as leader.
When Gorbachev took over as leader, the Soviet economy was struggling. He wanted to reform the economy as well as the government. In order to do this he needed support, so he began to replace some of the older members of the politburo with younger men who shared his vision. Glasnost and Perestroika Gorbachev announced two main areas of reform.
Raisa Gorbachev | News | The Guardian
He called them Glasnost and Perestroika. But as things turned out, the President would have to be patient. Brezhnev died in Novemberand was replaced by Yuri Andropov.WRAP Bush, Gorbachev pay respects to Reagan
Less than 2 years later, Andropov died, and was succeeded by Constantin Chernenko. Incredibly, Chernenko died just 13 months later. To replace him, the Soviet high command chose a younger leader, Mikhail Gorbachev. It was Gorbachev with whom President Reagan would finally have that long-sought opportunity to begin to form a new relationship, one that would lead to a lessening of tensions between Washington and Moscow, and eventually to meaningful arms reduction.
Almost a year later, the two leaders got together again, this time in Reykjavik, Iceland. In a Summit meeting not long in the making, they met at Hofdi House, a picturesque waterfront structure that was once the French consulate. There they came tantalizingly close to an agreement to eliminate all medium-range missiles based in Europe.
But at the last minute, Gorbachev insisted that the United States abandon plans for a space-based missile defense system. The Summit was over.