You Feed Me, I Feed You: Symbiosis - Dive & Discover
Symbiosis is any type of a close and long-term biological interaction between two different . Commensal relationships may involve one organism using another for . protists) developed by symbiogenesis from a symbiosis between bacteria. A mutualistic relationship is when two organisms of different species "work One example of a mutualistic relationship is that of the oxpecker (a kind of bird) A certain kind of bacteria lives in the intestines of humans and many other animals. Commensalism is a type of relationship where one of the organisms benefits Humans have a mutualistic relationship with microorganisms, primarily bacteria, .
Batesian mimicry is an exploitative three-party interaction where one species, the mimic, has evolved to mimic another, the model, to deceive a third, the dupe.
In terms of signalling theorythe mimic and model have evolved to send a signal; the dupe has evolved to receive it from the model. This is to the advantage of the mimic but to the detriment of both the model, whose protective signals are effectively weakened, and of the dupe, which is deprived of an edible prey. For example, a wasp is a strongly-defended model, which signals with its conspicuous black and yellow coloration that it is an unprofitable prey to predators such as birds which hunt by sight; many hoverflies are Batesian mimics of wasps, and any bird that avoids these hoverflies is a dupe.15 INCREDIBLE Mutual Animal Relationships
Amensalism is an asymmetric interaction where one species is harmed or killed by the other, and one is unaffected by the other. Competition is where a larger or stronger organism deprives a smaller or weaker one from a resource. Antagonism occurs when one organism is damaged or killed by another through a chemical secretion.
An example of competition is a sapling growing under the shadow of a mature tree.
Ecological strategies of protists and their symbiotic relationships with prokaryotic microbes.
The mature tree can rob the sapling of necessary sunlight and, if the mature tree is very large, it can take up rainwater and deplete soil nutrients.
Throughout the process, the mature tree is unaffected by the sapling. Indeed, if the sapling dies, the mature tree gains nutrients from the decaying sapling.
An example of antagonism is Juglans nigra black walnutsecreting juglone, a substance which destroys many herbaceous plants within its root zone. In many cases, the pair includes a microbe and a host animal.
The microbes provide their host animal with food and the host provides the microbes with either some of the things they need to survive or a home—often both. Some biologists use it that way, too, but technically the word refers to a variety of close relationships, not just those in which both partners benefit. In some symbiotic relationships, one of the organisms benefits but the other is harmed. An example of this is a tapeworm in a human. The tapeworm gains nourishment, while the human loses nutrients.
Symbiosis - Wikipedia
In other symbiotic relationships, one of the organisms benefits and the other is neither helped nor harmed. An example of this would be an orchid growing on a tree. Symbiosis can occur between any two kinds of organisms, such as two species of animals, an animal and microbes, a plant and a fungus, or a single-celled organism such as a protist and bacteria. In other cases, it is very difficult. The algae live inside the coral polyp and perform photosynthesis, converting energy from the sun and carbon dioxide into organic matter and chemical energy.
In the process, they give off oxygen and other nutrients that the coral needs to live. The coral polyp provides its zooxanthellae with carbon dioxide, shelter, and some nutrients.
Mutualistic relationships also occur in the deep ocean, between microbes and a wide range of animals including corals, tubeworms, and mussels.
Many of these are found at cold seeps or at hydrothermal vents. Sunlight cannot penetrate into the deep ocean, so the organisms that live there cannot do photosynthesis.
They must rely on a different source of energy. At cold seeps and hydrothermal vents, there are many chemicals that microbes can use to create food and energy. Hydrogen sulfide the stuff that smells like rotten eggs and methane are two of the most common of these. Where hydrogen sulfide is present in the seafloor around cold seeps, tubeworms are often found growing in clusters of thousands of individuals.
These unusual animals do not have a mouth, stomach, or gut. Instead, they have a large organ called a trophosome that contains billions of chemosynthetic bacteria. In some cases, the trophosome accounts for more than half the weight of the tubeworm.