parent sex differences in parent-child relation- ships. The strength of each perspective is tested empirically through comparisons of single- custodial mothers and. Child functioning, role demands, relationships, single mother, single father. Single-parent families are formed when parents divorce, when a child is born outside. Being a single parent can have both challenges and benefits. Things work best when you have good relationships with your children and a.
Children want to love and be loved by both their parents have a range of supports for your child. It can take time for you and your children to adjust to being a single parent household. Being children Children living with a single parent can often be more mature because of the extra roles they have.
Many are involved in chores and decisions, and need to do things for themselves and siblings. If they have been given a lot of say at home, some children may have problems at school if they expect to be treated in the same way by teachers. Tell your children you are proud of them and value what they do. Try not to burden them with adult concerns, including money worries. Being with friends, playing sport, being creative or just day-dreaming are all important parts of childhood which help them have balance in their lives.
Shared parenting When both parents are involved in parenting after separation, children adjust better. The quality of the relationships is what is most important. Whether parents are together or apart, children benefit when each parent is positive, supportive and involved. Having frequent or regular contact is also important.
It can be hard to see your child excited about seeing their other parent. It is important not to make them feel guilty about this. It is also important not to involve children in your problems with the other parent, or speak badly of them in front of children.
Children are very loyal and protective of parents and it hurts when someone they love is criticised. Keep changeovers as calm as possible. Conflict and tension stresses children.
If tensions are high, you could choose a neutral place or have a friend present. Children can take a few minutes or hours, and some take days.
Some may act out, or become quiet and sad. They may feel sad about leaving the other parent, and guilty or disloyal to you for feeling this way. Children who have no contact with the other parent still need to know where that person fits into their lives. They may be able to have contact with grandparents or other relatives of your former partner. Looking after yourself The stronger you are physically, mentally and emotionally, the better you will adjust to your new life.
When you find ways to be happy in your own life children learn that even big problems can be dealt with. For example, Walker and Taylor discussions would be poorer with less engagement with had family triads two parents and one child discuss both others' ideas and weaker problem-solving efforts, as a hypothetical moral dilemma and an actual moral conflict reflected in both the cognitively stimulating categories of from the child's experience.
In assessing the cognitive the DECS and the cognitive ego-functioning domain. In the context of the child's dilemma, another prediction is that relationships in single-parent parents were less cognitively challenging, and more households will be viewed as being more affectionate, questioning and supportive.
Furthermore, it was the intimate, and nurturant, and that actual interactions will parents' interactions on this actual conflict that predicted be more mutually supportive. Previous research has also children's subsequent moral development, not the indicated that single-parent families are typically more discussion of the hypothetical dilemma. The use of actual egalitarian, with children having greater responsibility conflicts may yield more representative interactions and control.
This forms the basis for the prediction that because of individuals' greater personal investment in children from single-parent families will perceive a more particular issues or decisions. Interestingly, Smetana balanced power relationship with parents than children found that parents and children identify dissimilar from two-parent families, and that there will be more conflicts in their relationship and interpret them differ- indications of "friendship" companionship between ently, with parents focussing on children's personality children and parents in single-parent families.
Previous and children focussing on parental regulation of activities.
This leads to the hypothe- actual conflicts. An analysis of the relationships character and entailing better ego functioning than the between these demographic variables age, educational more threatening actual interpersonal conflicts which may level, occupational status and the parenting variables of elicit more affect and poorer ego coping. Further, it was interest here the relationship qualities assessed by the expected that the family structure effects discussed above NRI, the verbal interactions assessed by the DECS, and ego would be more salient in the context of actual conflicts functioning assessed by the Ego Q-Sort revealed gener- than hypothetical ones.
However, as might be gender differences were not the main focus here, except expected, parents' use of the supportive category of as they interacted with family structure, some differences verbal interactions was predicted by the social class in these regards would be expected. Only the targeted time, typically in the evening or on the weekend, to Grade 10 child and one parent from each family were participate in the study.
After providing consent, each recruited to participate; the other spouse, if any, and other participant was taken to a small office for an individual children were not involved.
Following the families, with an equal number of mothers and fathers interview, they completed the item Netzvork of Relation- within each type of family structure. Single parents had ships Inventory NRl in regards to the other person, using been divorced or separated for a minimum of 1 year and a 5-point Likert scale. Once the NRI had been completed, parent and child their age, educational level, and occupational status, and reconvened in a larger room to participate in a "dyadic on their child's gender.
These families were predominantly middle-class, they had individually responded in the interview.
The according to Treiman's Standard International experimenter chose a dilemma on which they had indi- Occupational Prestige Scale, with a mean occupational vidually disagreed on its solution in order to foster status score of The dyad was asked to discuss discussion in the dyadic session were coded in terms of and attempt to resolve this conflict, c Finally, in a third the 25 codes, later collapsing into the categories described part of the discussion session, the child was similarly above.
This coding was conducted by two raters who asked to describe the moral conflict he or she was having scored about equal amounts of the data. Interrater with the parent, and was asked to discuss and resolve this reliability was determined by their independent coding of conflict as well.
The order of these three parts of the the dilemma discussions of 40 participants 20 randomly session was randomized1. The sessions were video- selected dyads from the larger data set from which the recorded, with a relatively unobtrusive wall-mounted present findings are drawn, and was calculated in terms camera, for later transcription and coding. Interrater reliability was found to be substantial, Verbal interactions.
Various family interaction coding. Thus, the interactions in the dyadic used in handling these three conflicts were examined discussion session were coded, from the transcripts, using using Haan's ; Haan et al. Each participant in the dyadic discussion was turn or "speech" uttered by each participant. More than rated independently by different raters. The Q-sort was one code may be given to a conversational turn, but each done macroanalytically after viewing the videotape of would refer to separate parts of the speech.
This, then, is each dilemma discussion. In this Q-sort, the rater placed a microanalytic approach where the unit of analysis is the the items such as "reacts sensitively to others' feelings" "speech," of which there are typically hundreds per and "produces intellectualizations which seem self- session.
Analyses were conducted at the - as given by the difference between the three cognitive level of these categories. Standard deviations are indicated in parentheses. Good interrater reliability is indicated gender x 2 gender of dyad partner. The last factor refers by a Q-correlation above. Interrater reliability averaged to the gender of the other person in the dyad. The analysis in each section and. The results are organized into three sections.
The first parent would be more appropriately treated as a within-subjects section examines parents' and children's perceptions of than a between-subjects factor given that participants were mem- their relationships NRI across family structures.
The bers of the same family. However, using individuals rather than families as the unit of analysis provides a more conservative test second examines the quality of their verbal interactions of the hypotheses and is consistent with our previous work on DECS when attempting to resolve moral conflicts.
In other words, females report greater x 2 participant's gender x 2 gender of dyad partner affection in same-sex than in other-sex relationships. This being rated multivariate analysis of variance MANOVA finding may reflect females' greater willingness to report was conducted for the 11 relationship qualities assessed signs of love and care. Subsequent quent analyses of simple interaction effects and simple, univariate analyses of variance ANOVA were conducted simple main effects indicated the same locus of this to clarify these effects.
Not surprisingly, and as predicted, parents were level of negative interactions. Indeed, contrary to and parents see Table 1. That is, parents were more likely to parent, and parent's conflict with childthe analyses here elicit the child's opinions and ideas and to paraphrase examined not only differences as a function of family them in order to check understanding than were children, structure, family member, participant's gender, and whereas children were more likely to simply provide gender of dyad partner, but also as a function of the information.
This finding is consistent with the prediction nature of the conflict being discussed.
The multivariate effect of family member was dyads, a 2 family structure x 2 family member x 2 qualified by an interaction with gender of dyad partner, participant's gender x 2 gender of dyad partner x 3 but this interaction was only evident for the representa- dilemma: Subsequent analy- conducted for the six conceptual categories of interactions ses of the simple main effect of gender of dyad partner for with repeated measures on the dilemma factor.
Univariate ANOVAs indicated that family structure It should be noted that although the cognitive and differences were evident on two categories of interactions, affective interfering categories are infrequent, this does although these findings should be interpreted cautiously not mean they have no relevance.
For example, a parent given the marginally significant multivariate effect for who threatens a child need only do that once in order to family structure. Single-parent families were somewhat have a chilling effect on the tone of the discussion. There were also three single-parent families evidenced more conflict and interactions: For the Operational Thus, female Supportive 5. Although these differences Although the DECS is designed to assess both the cogni- were in the expected direction see Table 2these effects tive and affective aspects of the quality of discussion did not attain significance.
The main effects of family behaviour, the vast majority of its codes tap cognitive- structure were not qualified by interactions with other style interactions. The Ego Q-Sort, in contrast, may provide variables. Thus, there was no evidence to support the a more sensitive assessment of the affective tone of view that children in the custody of same-sex single participants' interactive behaviour because it is based on parents display more adequate verbal interactions than a macroanalytic coding of behavioural observations rather those being raised by other-sex parents.
Because of the greater relevance to their As with the DECS, the analyses here examined differ- lives, the discussion of both the child's and parent's actual ences as a function of family structure, family member, dilemmas was characterized by more affect both support participant's gender, gender of dyad partner, and di- and conflict than the discussion of the hypothetical di- lemma context.
Rather, ANOVAs were The multivariate effect of dilemma was qualified by an conducted for the four ego functions separately, using interaction with participanfs gender, but this interaction was mean scores as the dependent variable. Subsequent An examination of Tables 4 and 5 reveals that coping analyses of the simple main effect of dilemma for males and processes were more characteristic of participants' func- females separately revealed that in both cases the dilemma tioning than were defending processes given the overall effect was only significant for females for the representa- positive scores.
There were no vs. Thus, intraceptive function; and 2. Thus, the prediction that parents in ego functioning across dilemma context. The analysis would evidence better ego functioning than children of verbal interactions using the DECSpresented earlier, received somewhat qualified support only when interact- indicated that the discussion of the hypothetical dilemma ing with sons.
There was some indication with the DECS was more "cognitive" and less "affective" than the actual that interactions with adolescent girls were somewhat dilemmas. Similarly here, better ego functioning was strained and this may explain parents' lower level of ego evidenced on the hypothetical conflict than either of the coping in such situations.
Subse- better ego functioning than those from single-parent quent analyses of this interaction indicated that the families see Table 4. This relatively unambiguous pattern was dilemma and when parents were interacting with girls qualified by two interactions: It had also been hypothesized pant's gender for the intraceptive function, and family that family structure effects might be more apparent on structure by gender of dyad partner for the affective- the actual than on the hypothetical conflicts because of Single-Parent Families 73 their greater relevance to everyday life.
No support was ity and influence. The present study yielded no evidence found for this notion given the absence of an interaction to support this view. One possibility for the failure to find The recent increase in the number of one-parent house- differences on these variables is the study's small sample holds, particularly those headed by fathers, has not been size and consequently low power.
As noted earlier, previous research, especially of power does not seem to be a particular concern. It is possible that this differ- families.
Single Parent Children - Single Parents - New Parents - Huggies
Among favourable economic and life circumstances, which were the more positive findings were the reports of greater controlled here. These perceptions of greater sharing and custody of the same-sex parent. Some theoretical perspec- caring in single-parent families make sense given that the tives would posit such a view and it is commonly held by parent has no partner with whom to be intimate and those who practise family law.
There is some evidence similarly the child has only one parent. None of the findings, from any of the various discipline and control and because of other stresses measures used here, was consistent with this view. Lack associated with single parenting.
Single parent children
The results again were of power due to the limitations of the sample does not relatively unambiguous. Both in terms of perceptions seem to be a particularly viable explanation for the failure NRl and observations of verbal interactions DECSto support this same-sex notion because, indeed, there single-parent families evidenced greater conflict. Further- was some evidence to the contrary.
Thus, members of single-parent families were less high level of conflictual and punishing interactions.
Most objective in their problem-solving, less tolerant of ambigu- of the previous research indicating good psychosocial ity and dissonance, less empathic, less playful, and more functioning for girls in single-mother families has been likely to make negative attributions about others and to conducted with children younger than those participating resort to non-age-appropriate behaviour.
These findings in the present study. Interestingly then, there is some are consistent with, and expand upon, those of other indication that daughters of single mothers begin to researchers Cohen, ; Heatherington et al. Single-parent families have sometimes been character- As noted before, one strength of the present study was ized as more egalitarian and less hierarchical than two- the matching of groups on several relevant demographic parent families, with children having greater responsibil- variables.
Another was the use of multiple assessments of 74 Walker and Hennig family functioning: Although the children in this study conflicts which were coded with both micro- and macro- were relatively mature mid-adolescents, they displayed analytic coding systems. Considerable congruence was less adequate ego functioning than their parents in evidenced across these various methods, lending in- conflictual situations. Further research is required to creased support to the findings. First, the sample size was modest and there were search of heightened conflict in single-parent families.
Perhaps the small Indeed, variability in both verbal interactions and ego sample size is partly compensated by the quality and functioning was found across discussion contexts. In quantity of data obtained on family functioning. Indeed, terms of verbal interactions DECSthe actual conflicts many strong and meaningful effects were evidenced, so elicited more affective-type speeches, both positive and lack of power would not appear to be a problem.