Heroin - Wikipedia
Some of the well-known brand and street names: girl Dance fever Lollipops Flatline Tango and Cash China white TNT BRAND NAMES Fiorional with Codeine. Learn the most common street names for drugs, both illicit and prescription. Cocaine—This white powder substance is commonly abused for its a modified form of the morphine alkaloid derived from opium poppies, can be. These drugs include morphine and codeine, as well as many synthetic Street names for Demerol include Demmies and Pain Killer. 4.
The serial killer Harold Shipman used diamorphine on his victims, and the subsequent Shipman Inquiry led to a tightening of the regulations surrounding the storage, prescribing and destruction of controlled drugs in the UK.
John Bodkin Adams is also known to have used heroin as a murder weapon. Because significant tolerance to respiratory depression develops quickly with continued use and is lost just as quickly during withdrawal, This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
May it is often difficult to determine whether a heroin lethal overdose was accidental, suicide or homicide. By mouth Use of heroin by mouth is less common than other methods of administration, mainly because there is little to no "rush", and the effects are less potent. Heroin's oral bioavailability is both dose-dependent as is morphine's and significantly higher than oral use of morphine itself, reaching up to The maximum plasma concentration of morphine following oral administration of heroin was around twice as much as that of oral morphine.
Heroin base commonly found in Europewhen prepared for injection, will only dissolve in water when mixed with an acid most commonly citric acid powder or lemon juice and heated.
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Heroin in the east-coast United States is most commonly found in the hydrochloride salt form, requiring just water and no heat to dissolve. Users tend to initially inject in the easily accessible arm veins, but as these veins collapse over time, users resort to more dangerous areas of the body, such as the femoral vein in the groin.
Users who have used this route of administration often develop a deep vein thrombosis. The dose of heroin used for recreational purposes is dependent on the frequency and level of use: Many countries now supply small sterile spoons and filters for single use in order to prevent the spread of disease.
It is commonly smoked in glass pipes made from glassblown Pyrex tubes and light bulbs.
Heroin may be smoked from aluminium foil, which is heated by an underneath flame, with the resulting smoke inhaled through a tube of rolled up foil, a method also known as " chasing the dragon ". This method of administration redirects first-pass metabolismwith a quicker onset and higher bioavailability than oral administration, though the duration of action is shortened. This method is sometimes preferred by users who do not want to prepare and administer heroin for injection or smoking, but still experience a fast onset.
Snorting heroin becomes an often unwanted route, once a user begins to inject the drug. The user may still get high on the drug from snorting, and experience a nod, but will not get a rush. A "rush" is caused by a large amount of heroin entering the body at once. When the drug is taken in through the nose, the user does not get the rush because the drug is absorbed slowly rather than instantly. Suppository Little research has been focused on the suppository anal insertion or pessary vaginal insertion methods of administration, also known as "plugging".
These methods of administration are commonly carried out using an oral syringe. Heroin can be dissolved and withdrawn into an oral syringe which may then be lubricated and inserted into the anus or vagina before the plunger is pushed. The rectum or the vaginal canal is where the majority of the drug would likely be taken up, through the membranes lining their walls. Adverse effects Like most opioidsunadulterated heroin may lead to adverse effects.
The purity of street heroin varies greatly, leading to overdoses when the purity is higher than they expected. Some believe that heroin produces more euphoria than other opioids; one possible explanation is the presence of 6-monoacetylmorphine, a metabolite unique to heroin — although a more likely explanation is the rapidity of onset. While other opioids of recreational use produce only morphine, heroin also leaves 6-MAM, also a psycho- active metabolite.
However, this perception is not supported by the results of clinical studies comparing the physiological and subjective effects of injected heroin and morphine in individuals formerly addicted to opioids; these subjects showed no preference for one drug over the other.
Equipotent injected doses had comparable action courses, with no difference in subjects' self-rated feelings of euphoria, ambition, nervousness, relaxation, drowsiness, or sleepiness. Nauseavomitingand severe itching may also occur. After the initial effects, users usually will be drowsy for several hours; mental function is clouded; heart function slows; and breathing is also severely slowed, sometimes enough to be life-threatening.
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Slowed breathing can also lead to coma and permanent brain damage. Studies have shown some deterioration of the brain's white matter due to heroin use, which may affect decision-making abilities, the ability to regulate behavior, and responses to stressful situations.
Heroin also produces profound degrees of tolerance and physical dependence. Tolerance occurs when more and more of the drug is required to achieve the same effects. With physical dependencethe body adapts to the presence of the drugand withdrawal symptoms occur if use is reduced abruptly. Contracting blood-borne pathogens such as HIV and hepatitis via the sharing of needles Contracting bacterial or fungal endocarditis and possibly venous sclerosis Abscesses Poisoning from contaminants added to " cut " or dilute heroin Decreased kidney function nephropathyalthough it is not currently known if this is because of adulterants or infectious diseases  Withdrawal Main article: Overdose Heroin overdose is usually treated with the opioid antagonistnaloxone.
This reverses the effects of heroin and causes an immediate return of consciousness but may result in withdrawal symptoms.
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In controlled mediums, the drug is also used as an anesthetic for humans and animals. Klonopin Klonopin, the brand name for clonazepam, is used to control certain types of seizures caused by epilepsy. It decreases abnormal electrical activity in the brain. Klonopin is also prescribed to treat panic attacks by relieving anxiety. LSD, or acid as it is usually called, is a drug that causes several psychological effects including hallucinations.
It isn't addictive and is commonly taken orally, via things like sugar cubes or blotter paper. Laudanum Laudanum is an alcoholic narcotic mixture that generally contains 10 percent opium, or the equivalent of 1 percent morphine. Commonly available without a prescription until the early 20th century, its use is limited now to severe cases of pain and other conditions. It is administered in conjunction with counseling and other rehabilitative measures. Only treatment programs have approval to administer levacetylmethadol in the U.
Librium Librium is a brand name for chlordiazepoxide, which is used to treat the symptoms of alcohol withdrawal and IBS. It reduces anxiety and agitation by depressing the central nervous system.
Librium is classified as a benzodiazepine and can be habit forming. Lorazepam Lorazepam is an antianxiety medication that works by slowing brain activity.
Often marketed under the names Ativan and Temesta, lorazepam is also helpful in treating insomnia, epilepsy, and nausea caused by cancer treatments. This drug can be habit-forming.
Find out more about the harmful effects of Lorazepam use and how to help a Lorazepam addict by calling our helpline. Lorcet Lorcet is a narcotic analgesic that is combined with acetaminophen, a non-narcotic pain reliever. Patients should avoid grapefruit or grapefruit juice while taking this medication as it can increase the amount of drug in the bloodstream.
Lortab is a brand name of a pill that combines the drugs hydrocodone and acetaminophen. It is commonly given to patients to relieve moderate to severe pain. Common side effects include an upset stomach, nausea, and dizziness. Luminal Luminal is a brand name of the drug phenobarbital. This drug has sedative and hypnotic effects, but it is most commonly used as an anticonvulsant to treat patients who suffer from any type of seizures.
It is available in liquid and tablet forms. This drug is used to control moderate to severe pain. It can be habit-forming. MS Contin should be taken with plenty of liquid.
It is an opiate narcotic analgesic known as morphine. MSIR is a pain reliever often used by cancer patients to relieve long-term moderate to severe pain. Marijuana, also called cannabis, is a psychoactive drug that is most often smoked.
The chemical compound tetrahydrocannabinol, commonly referred to as THC, is the major psychoactive element of cannabis. Marijuana is controversially used to treat some common medical conditions.