The Ikhwân al-Safâ’ or “Brethren of Purity”, as their name is commonly translated, are the authors of one of the most complete Medieval. The Ikhwan al-Safa’ (Brethren of Purity) were the anonymous adepts of a tenth- century esoteric fraternity of lettered urbanites that was principally based in Basra . The philosophy of the group of Arab philosophers of the fourth or fifth century ah ( tenth or eleventh century ad) known as the Ikhwan al-Safa’ (Brethren of Purity).

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But they had a special interpretation of religion in general, and of Islam in particular. Dialectics increases damaging opposition among the learned. It should be noted that the Ikhwan’s usage of these divisions is much broader in range than might be expected at first sight. Some philosophers and historians such as Tawhidi, Ibn al-Qifti, Shahrazuri disclosed the names of those allegedly involved in the development of the work: Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

This means that the orbits within the outer sphere are not homocentric with it, concentric or having one common centre, but eccentric, i.

Epistle 48 discusses propaganda. There are profound links between the epistemology and the soteriology doctrine of salvation of the Ikhwan, and it would not be an exaggeration to say that the former feeds the latter. Greek sources for Epistle 37 on love also vary. Evolution rests on the view that every kingdom constitute the primary matter and nourishing material for the next higher kingdom.

Even the headings of the four sections of the encyclopedia are misleading. Qur’an, vii, 11; xxxviii; 76 cf.

The identity and period of the authors of the Encyclopedia have not been conclusively established, [8] though the work has been mostly linked with the Isma’ili s. Whenever the senses come in touch with sensible bodies, their temperament undergoes a change which is communicated soon, together with the abstract forms of those sensible bodies, to the imaginative zone in the front part of the brain.


Turn from the sleep of negligence and the slumber of ignorance, for the world is a house of delusion and tribulations. These laws are dictated by the wise men of every people for the benefit of their respective nations. Their eclecticism and tolerance provided them with a unique methodology for the achievement of that ikhwaan. The Universal Soul also is a spiritual form which emanated from the Universal Intellect which is the first thing the Creator Created.

This view, however, is ikhwsn by their attitude, to see the ultimate goal of ikhwzn gnosiological ikhqan as an attempt of separating the soul from the ties of matter and purifying it to achieve happiness in the hereafter see also Reymond; Raymond Byzantine science Chinese astronomy Medieval European science Indian astronomy.

This is not the statement of Darwin.

This is what Ibn Maskawayh states and this is precisely what is written in the Epistles of Ikhwan al-Safa. The influence of intellect ceases at this stage of Nature. Juxtaposed to him is ahl bayt al-nubuwwa the immediate family of the Prophet: According to “Ikhwan as-Safa” Rasail 21st.

McGregorthen Epistle 5: Each source was capable of being converted into a series of disciplines, further formalized into a curriculum, directed at students through sessions involving iihwan, study, and discussion.

The Encyclopedia of Religion. Epistle 50 discusses the various kinds of ‘administration’ physical, spiritual, personal, familiar, etc.


The theme was already addressed in Epistle 29 wisdom is recognizable in death in that it allows the vision of God, hence the highest sorrow is damnation. Byzantine mathematics European mathematics Indian mathematics. The metaphysics of the Ikhwan al-Safa’ are built upon those of Aristotle and Plotinusthough it must be emphasized that it is a Middle Eastern version of Aristotelianism and Neoplatonism which we encounter when we read the rasa’il of the Ikhwan.

At times he overshot himself and disclosed a part of the secret with him to some of those who were around him but were unworthy of this secret before the time assigned for such disclosure. While the Prophet Muhammad was both prophet and ruler of the Muslim ummaso ensuring its best defence, his possible successors did not always match him in nobility. List of rasa’il in the Encyclopedia of the Brethren of Purity.


The third part, which is on psychology, comprises ten epistles on the psychical and intellective sciences, dealing with the nature of the intellect and the intelligible, the symbolism of temporal cycles, the mystical essence of love, resurrection, causes and effects, definitions and descriptions.

Peeters en Departement Oosterse Studies, pp. It manifests itself in the sun through which is animated the whole sublunary material world. This constitutes a philosophy bi-lingual book series that is published by Oxford University Press in association with the Institute of Ismaili Studies in London; and this large-scale project is chaired by the series General Editor Nader El-Bizri.

We are reminded in this case of the artificial satellites and of the fact that they lose all weight as soon as they leave the zone of the gravity of the earth. The universe would cease, and there would remain one being: Their usage of such terms, however, does not always adhere to the classical Aristotelian paradigm or usage.

This leads us to Being and Emanation, the coming of the universe into existence, or its creation. It is very well known, and a great deal of research into it has been done by Eastern and Western scholars, but the variety of topics addressed and the questions raised as to the identity and ideology of its authors remain unsolved. Tauris in Association with the Institute of Ismaili Studies.

Ikhwan Al-Safa |

In the early stage, the angels contemplated the Intellect and performed the worship due to God. Aristotle was also of this opinion.

III,10—, 5. The Encyclopedia is divided into fifty-two epistles rasa’il of varying lengths, which make up four books.