understand the relationship between society and education system. .. List out major groups of immigrants from various parts of the world in. India. . Education and Society: Issues and Explanations in the Sociology of book covers the macro relationships between educationand the economy and state and. What are the functional relationships between education and other sub-systems of society. Many functionalists have argued that there is functional relationship.
Five major complexes of institutions are identified: These institutions form sub-systems within social system or larger society. Education as a Sub-System: Education is a sub-system of the society. It is related to other sub-systems.
Various institutions or sub-systems are a social system because they are interrelated. Education as a sub-system performs certain functions for the society as whole. There are also functional relations between education and other sub-systems.
Define society and What is the relationship between education and society
For example, Education trains the individuals in skills that are required by economy. Similarly education is conditioned by the economic institutions. The effectiveness of organised activities of a society depends on the interaction and inter relationships of these institutions which constitute the whole.
Now we will examine the role of education for the society and the relationship between education and other sub-system of society in terms of functionalist perspective. The functionalist view of education tends to focus on the positive contributions made by education to the maintenance of social system. Without these essential similarities, cooperation, social solidarity and therefore social life would be impossible. The vital task of all society is the creation of solidarity.
This involves a commitment to society, a sense of belonging and feeling that the social unit is more important than the individual. Durkheim argues that to become attached to society the child must feel in it something that is real, alive and powerful, which dominates the person and to which he also owes the best part of himself.
Education in particular the teaching of history, provides this link between the individual and society. If the history of his society is brought alive to the child, he will come to see that he is a part of something larger than himself, he will develop a sense of commitment to the social group. Durkheim argues that in complex industrial societies, the school serves a function which cannot be provided either by family or peer groups. Membership of the family is based on kinship relationship, membership of the poor group on the personal choice.
Membership of society as a whole is based neither of these principles. Individuals must learn to cooperate with those who are neither their kin nor their friends. The school provides a context where these skills can be learned.
As such, it is society in miniature, a model of the social system. In school, the child must interact with other members of the school in terms of fixed set of rules. School acts a bridge between the family and society as a whole, preparing the child for his adult role. However, in advanced industrial society, status in adult life is largely achieved. Thus, the child must move from particularistic standards and ascribed status of the family to universalistic standards and achieved status of adult society.
The school prepares young people for this transition. Schools operates on meritocratic principle, status is achieved on the basis of merit. Like Durkheim, Parsons also argue that the school represents society in miniature.
By reflecting the operation of society as a whole, the school prepares young people for their adult roles. As part of this process, schools socialise young people into the basic values of society. These values have important functions in society as a whole. Finally, Parsons sees the educational system as an important mechanism for the selection of individuals for their future role in society. Thus, schools, by testing and evaluating students, match their talents, skills and capacities to the jobs for which they are best suited.
The school is therefore seen as the major mechanism for role allocation. Like Parsons, Davis and Moore see education as means of role allocation. But they link the educational system more directly with the system of social stratification. According Davis and Moore social stratification is a mechanism for ensuring that most talented and able members of society are allocated to those positions which are functionally most important for the society. High rewards which act as incentives are attached to these positions which means that all will win through.
The education system is one important part of this process. According to Althusser, a French philosopher, as a part of the superstructure, the educational system is ultimately shaped by infrastructure.
It will therefore reflect the relations of production and serve the interests of the capitalist ruling class. For the ruling class to survive and prosper, the reproduction of labour power is essential. He argues that the reproduction of labour involves two processes.
First, the reproduction of the skills necessary for an efficient labour force.
Second, the reproduction of ruling class ideology and the socialisation workers in terms of it. These processes combine to reproduce a technically efficient and submissive and obedient work force.
The role of education in capitalist society is the reproduction of such a work force. Althusser argues that the reproduction of labour power requires not only reproduction of its skills, but also, at the same time a reproduction of its submission to the ruling ideology.
Ideological State Apparatus transmit ruling class ideology thereby creating false class consciousness. Education not only transmits a general ruling class ideology which justifies and legitimates the capitalist system. It also reproduces the attitudes and behaviour required by the major groups in the division of labour. Like Althusser, the American economists Bowels and Gintis argue that the major role of education in capitalist society is the reproduction of labour power.
In particular, they maintain that education contributes to the reproduction of workers with the kind of personalities, attitudes and outlooks which will fit them for their exploited status. They argue that social relationships in schools replicate the hierarchical division of labour in their work place. It can be stated here that education performs certain role for the society. At the same time education is also conditioned by the social structure. Society crates educational institutions such as schools, colleges and universities to perform certain functions in accomplishing its end.
The educational system may be viewed as a part of the total social system. It reflects and influences the social and cultural order of which it is a part. The class system, the cultural values, the power structure, the balance between individual freedom and social control, the degree of urbanisation and industrialisation all these factors exercise a profound influence on school system of any society.
Functional Relationships between Education and other Sub-Systems: What are the functional relationships between education and other sub-systems of society. Many functionalists have argued that there is functional relationship between different sub-systems. For example there is a functional relationship between education and economic system. Skills and values learned in education are directly related to the way in which the economy and the occupational structure operate.
Relationship between society and education Essay
Education trains the individuals in skills that are required by the economy. Similarly, education is also influenced by economy. Education reflects these changes in the economy. In this context Halsey and Floud argue that, the educational system is bent increasingly to the service of the labour force. This can be seen from the steady increase in the school leaving age, the increasing specialisation of educational provision and the rapid expansion of higher and vocational education.
These institutions are social system because they are interrelated. A social system reveals a balance between its parts which facilitates its operation. Occasionally it may reveal imbalance, but it tends towards equilibrium.
For example, when a country changes its Constitution, the change is never confined to its political institutions. Corresponding changes take place in economic relationships, in the educational system, in the class structure and so on.
All the social institutions would be in balance, each being adjusted to other, forming a single unified scheme. Social Origins and Orientation of Students and Teachers: Education is a social concern. It is a social process.
Its objective is to develop and awaken in the child those physical, intellectual and moral states which are acquired of the individual by his society as a whole and the milieu for which he is specially destined. It is the significant means of socialisation. The function of education is to socialise the young by imparting to them norms and values, culture and heritage, and to provide them with skills and placement. This is traditionally, the accepted role of education.
In the West, for long, literacy was not considered essential for all. It remained confined to the priests, ruling classes and to commercial class. The education imparted was literary and religious. The valuation of education was not very high. In the Indian social milieu, education has been traditionally given significant importance. Education has been given greater prominence in India than in Western or Islamic societies or in China. Eighteenth century, witnessed the total disruption of educational system.
The modern industrial society with its advance technology, division of labour, job differentiation, assumes a general standard of literacy. It cannot carry on with handful of education and mass illiteracy. The technological advancement has necessitated the re-orientation of education.
The environmental effect of the education of child is now given special stress and attention. Douglas, in The Home and the School has specially developed this aspect of child education. Likewise, children from smaller families generally have higher educational attainment, since they are also likely to receive more parental attention than children in large families. He or she is an active agent who has to learn to interpret that environment… Consequently, when considering the effects of the home on educational attainment.
It is not enough to see this simply as the result of the occupation and education of the parents. Family insecurity, for example, is not only produced by poverty but also results when professional parents with busy lives spend little time with their children. In USA, there does not exist a national system of education. It is not a Federal subject. It is left entirely to the care of the local administration.
There, therefore, exists diversity of institutions and of standards. Even within the same State, educational standards and the quality of schools varies. The American elementary and high school education is comprehensive, and in the schools are conducted commercial, vocational and college preparatory programmes. There are schools, which exclusively conduct college preparatory courses.
In England, there are elementary schools for the working class, Grammar schools for middle class children, and public school education, for the children of the upper class.
This pattern has remained more or less unchanged, since long time. The Education Act ofdid not bring about any change in this differentiation. There is, however, effort being made to bring about the changes in the system, to develop comprehensive school system. Education in our country under the British Raj did not make much progress. Inliteracy did not cover more than 10 per cent of the population. Since independence much extension has been given to education and literacy.
Efforts are afoot to extend education both at the primary and adult levels. In the five decades since independence much advance has been made in education at secondary, college and university levels. Under the new pattern Ten plus Two system at the secondary and senior secondary levels, emphasis is now being laid on vocational and technical education. In the traditional society, teacher was taken to symbolise the best in social values.
He was accepted as a moral authority.
The Relationship between Education and Society (7040 Words)
But this position has now undergone a distinct change. Teacher in an educated society is not the only person who can be said to have intellectual competence and school too is not the only institution to impart education.
The normative aspect of education is not attended to. In fact it has remained neglected. The emphasis in learning is on the accumulation of knowledge or acquiring a qualification, vocational or otherwise.
Equality of Educational Opportunity: The equalisation of educational opportunities is essentially linked with the notion of equality in the social system. In a social system if all the individuals are treated as equal, they get equal opportunities for advancement. Since education is one of the most important means of upward mobility, it is through an exposure to education one can aspire to achieve higher status, position and emoluments.
But for getting education he must have equal opportunities like other members of the society. In case educational opportunities are unequally distributed, the inequalities in the social structure continue to be perpetuated, it is in this light the quality of educational opportunity has been visualised. The need for emphasising the equality of opportunity in education arise due to number of reasons.
Some of these reasons are enumerated below: Education is supposed to eliminate social and economic inequality. The relationship between education and inequality is a result of the historical particulars of the educational system. There are two factors in this 1 the available opportunities which structure individual choices and 2 the social and economic process which structure individual choices while the above factors point out that the educational system is a product of the social structure it must be remembered that it is not a one-way process because the educational system itself and the values it stands for influences individual decisions.
The major problem with respect to the equality of educational opportunity is the perpetuation of inequalities through education. It is through a system of education in which elite control is predominant that the inequalities are perpetuated. In an elite controlled system the schools practise segregation. This segregation may be on the basis of caste, colour or class etc. In South Africa schools practise segregation on the basis of colour.
Equality of educational opportunity is more talked about, than really believed. In all modern industrially advanced countries there is the total inequality of educational opportunity. Educational opportunities for a child are determined by his family, class, neighborhood consideration. A comprehensive school system free from these considerations is the demand all over the world.
There is a move to this effect in U. But the movement is comparatively weak in Britain and France. The size of the family and the parental attitude makes a lot of difference to the educational career of a child. The educated parents give due attention to the education of the children. The family influence determines the educational goal of the children. Inequality of educational opportunity also occurs due to the poverty of a large section of the population and the relative affluence of small minority.
The poor cannot pay the fees and their children do not find chances of continuing in schools. Children from the families that cannot provide the economic support and other perquisite, suffer badly.
From this group, there is the maximum number of dropouts. Education and social status have close connection. Social class position includes income, occupation and life style. These have impact on the upbringing of the child. Under the segregated schooling that long prevailed in the United States, officially in the South and informally elsewhere, Negroes received an inferior education.
Racially segregated schools have simply been poorer schools and children in these schools are not given the same opportunity to learn to the same level as white schools.
The neighborhood environment has much to do with the education of the children. Low income families concentrate in the inner city, live in old and decaying houses. Families with similar level of income, and similar vocation live in neighborhood. This sort of inequality is found everywhere in the West. The residential segregation is a factor that produces class structures.
Neighborhood has its impact on the school, and on the peer group. The attitude of the teacher has much to do with education of the children. The very real measurable differences between middle class and lower class children in tests, as well as the differences between white and Negro children, are to be accounted for, not by innate differences in ability, but by differences of cultural exposure and bearing opportunities.
The children in rural areas studying in poorly equipped schools have to compete with the children in urban areas where there are well-equipped schools and more informative environment for getting admission to the schools for higher bearing on professional colleges. In Indian situation educational inequality due to sex is also very much visible. They are given inferior position in the family and their education is neglected. Educational inequality is due to the system itself and also on account of conditions prevailing in society.
It is multi-sided affair and is continuing both in developed and developing societies. One important implication of looking at education as the transmitter of cultural values is the fact that education can be influenced by the culture of the society in which it takes place. For this reason, one may infer that for a child to be educated, he must be influenced by his environment and, in turn, be capable of influencing it.
The Relationship between Education and Society ( Words)
And it is only by the concept of the continuous interaction of the individual and his society that the development of personality can be properly understood.
Through this process, the society is able to achieve basic social conformity and ensure that its traditional values, beliefs, attitudes and aspirations are maintained and preserved. Clarks observed that a general knowledge and acceptance of the ideals and aims of our society is essential for all its citizens, and it must be achieved through education but in a form, which makes it compatible with freedom. So he reconciles the double purpose by saying that admittedly, the purpose of the educative society may be to make men conformable.
But overmastering that must be the purpose to make men free. A society needs a stable and dynamic set of values and a ,unified purpose. It is when this is ascertained that meaningful economic, political and social programmes can be embarked upon for the overall benefits of the citizens.
To be a fully developed a person in such a society, implies full and creative membership of it with powers to change it. Ottaway contended that the transmission of culture still remains a vital function, and is not to be dismissed as merely conservative in the sense of being old-fashioned.
He further observed that our children are potentially the society of the future, which still belongs to the non-social community, and education in this respect can be regarded as a socialization of the young.
Education depends on the total way of life of a people in a society. This suggests that the type of education provided will differ from society to society.What's Education For?
Besides, each society has her own norms, values and her own ideal persons who stand out clearly for the younger generations to emulate. Since all these societies are not the same, then it means that a man is regarded as a hero in one society because of his contributions to educational development of the society may not be regarded as such in another society where education is not given priority in the scheme of their daily activities. It, therefore, implies that children have different people to emulate in different societies.
It is logical to expect that the type education given in each society will change from time to time as the society changes. Ottaway observed that ideas of change originate in the minds of men; often in the mind of a single man. Exceptional individuals invent new techniques and propound new values for their society.
These ideas arise from the impact of man on his culture, but do not change the culture until they are shared and transmitted by a social group.
In his own submission, Boocock noted that societies undergoing rapid social change or modernization have special problems in adapting the educational system to the manpower needs of the world.
They often suffer shortages of persons with special kind of education in engineering and other technical fields and may have difficulty in keeping persons with valuable skills once they have completed their education. Another area of the relationship between education and society is through the arrangement of the entire society into a hierarchical order that is, through the social structure in which education plays a prominent and significant role in fixing educated individuals into social classes.
Ottaway observed that education is the process of preparing people to fit into this complex social structure and to play particular social roles as members of more than one institutional group. Individuals have to learn to be fathers or mothers, school teachers or civil servants, shopkeepers or priests. They have to learn to keep the law, to understand how they are governed and to be prepared to try and change the social moves when they see that they can be improved.
Education as a social phenomenon is also concerned with the preparation of the child for his future occupation in life. This is one of the main economic functions of education and this is in the interest of both the nation and the individual.