Part I: Introduction
Lexicography is a practical field that aims at the production of dictionaries and other Lexicology and phonology: The relationship between lexicology and. lang=en}} the part of linguistics that studies words, their nature and meaning, words' elements, relations between words including semantic relations, words groups and the whole lexicon while lexicography is the art or craft of compiling, writing and editing dictionaries. Difference between lexicology and lexicography; Lexicography and linguistics; Lexicon and grammar; Practical and theoretical dictionaries; Dictionary typology; .
Christopher Hall, Patrick H. Analyzing all the aspects of lexicology, we define lexicology as the study of the lexicon, or word-stock, its meaning, the relations among lexemes, the structure of lexemes, their etymology and lexical units, and relations between lexicology and other areas of the language: As the eminent British linguist M.
Halliday presents it, the goal of lexicology is to produce descriptions of the words of a language, and these descriptions are then published as dictionaries and thesauri. Several kinds of lexicology are identified such as general lexicology, special lexicology, contrastive lexicology, historical lexicology, or etymology, and descriptive lexicology. General lexicology, being a part of general linguistics, studies vocabulary irrespective of the specific features of any particular language and the meaning of words and word-combinations in isolation and in context.
Special lexicology studies words and word-combinations, and describes the vocabulary and vocabulary units of a particular language. It is a part of general lexicology. Non productive ways includes sound interchange, stress interchange, sound imitation, blending, and back formation.
Two related areas of lexicography are as follows: Theoretical lexicography deals with the analysis and description of the vocabulary of a particular language, and the meanings that connect certain words to others in a dictionary. Theoretical lexicography is particularly concerned with developing theories of the dictionary components and structures linking the data in dictionaries. As it is concerned with the theoretical analysis of the lexicon, so it is also known as Metalexicography.
Practical lexicography is an art and craft of writing, compiling and editing dictionaries. The compilation of well crafted dictionaries requires a careful consideration of some of the following aspects: Functions of practical lexicography The functions of practical lexicography are as follows: Educational function presupposes teaching language both native and foreign.
This is the major function of English lexicography, as English language is the need of hour and everyone wants to learn it. Lexicographers apply two basic philosophies to define words: The Earliest Dictionaries of English: The purpose was to enable the readers to read Latin manuscripts.
Throughout medieval period, some writers such as William Caxton began to compile glossaries. Most of them provided brief English definitions of Latin words. During the 16th century many words were from classical languages and were introduced into English as a result of which the need for English dictionary was felt. These dictionaries of hard words continued to appear throughout the 17th c.
The beginning of modern lexicography: Another English man Nathan Bailey published the first etymological dictionary A universal etymological English Dictionary which explained the origin of English words.
The Grim brothers then made a German dictionary. James Murray was the first editor of this dictionary, the other followed as the dictionary was worked on from to The first OED was of 16, pages, and containedentries. It has since been edited to a second edition that came out in A third edition is in the works.
The American independence created desire for linguistic independence from Britain. Noah Webster, an American English man, wrote the first American dictionary in He promoted American English; the first copy of that dictionary had 70, words. They revised the dictionary in to Standard American Edition. Patrick Hanks provides lists of 20th c English dictionaries and EFL dictionaries, the lists are as follows: Some 20th c English Dictionaries: Chambers 20th-Century Dictionary — A vast ragbag.
Many rare Scottish dialect terms. Some witty definitions, e.
Part I: Introduction
Interesting approach to sense groupings. Collins English Dictionary — Coverage of technical vocabulary and names. For dialect dictionaries dialectology is a necessary helpmate.
A basic prerequisite of bilingual dictionaries is a contrastive analysis of the linguistic systems of the two languages. This is provided by contrastive linguistics. All this shows that in his work the lexicographer has, to a large extent, always to depend on the findings of different branches of linguistics. But this is not so in actual life.
Lexicographical works had preceded grammatical works in many languages. It is not only the findings of linguistics which help in the solution of lexicographical problems, the lexicographical findings are equally utilized by the linguists for different purposes of authenticating their hypothesis, in helping standardization of the languages, especially in the fields of technical terminologies.
The problems of a lexicographer are practical and need based requiring at-the-moment solution. The lexicographer cannot wait for certain findings in the field of linguistics or other disciplines for the solution of his problems. It is here that linguistics might fail to meet the needs of a lexicographer. There are different schools of linguistics vying with each other in theoretical researches. The findings of one school are contradicted by the other. There are different studies on the same aspect of a language.
The lexicographer might not afford to wait for the final word to come. Moreover, many languages still remain uninvestigated. So the lexicographer has to find his own way. In his entire work, the lexicographer is guided by the practical considerations of a dictionary user.
The linguistic theories are quite important for the lexicographer but practical utility is more basic for him. As rightly put forward by Urdang "Lexicography, in practice is a form of applied linguistics and although more theoreticians would be a welcome addition to the field, they must remember that their theories should be interpretable above all in terms of practicality. Bloomfield considers grammar and lexicon dictionary as two parts of linguistic description and remarks "lexicon is really an appendix of the grammar, a list of basic irregularities".
Lexicology And lexicography
Bloomfield3. His statement seems to be inspired by the fact that grammar takes care of all the regular and predictable forms of the language whereas dictionary gives all the irregular and unpredictable forms as also forms with irregular and unpredictable meanings.
In other words, it deals with the individual idiosyncracies of a language. The dictionary gives irregular plurals, irregular forms of verbs and other unpredictable forms in the paradigm of the lexical unit. It does not enter regular inflected forms but gives derivational forms. It is in this sense that Bloomfield calls dictionary an appendix of grammar and a list of basic irregularities. As a matter of fact, there can be no strict separation of the two in terms that the dictionary is concerned with words only, or the grammar is concerned with forms and the dictionary with meaning.What is COMPUTATIONAL LEXICOLOGY? What does COMPUTATIONAL LEXICOLOGY?
Actually the grammatical rules also give or are supposed to include the meaning of constructions. The dictionary gives different grammatical categories of the lexical entry along with its meaning and use. The basic difference between the lexicon and the grammar lies in respect of their being open-ended and close-ended.
The grammatical rules of a language are internalized by an individual by the age of five or six years. Practically little is added to the grammatical structure afterwards. On the contrary, the acquisition of vocabulary is an ongoing and continuous process and lasts only at the time of death. Every day a new lexical item is added to the lexicon the inbuilt dictionary - the lexical stock of a language an individual speaker of a language has in himself.
Lexicology - Wikipedia
New words are added, some old words are dropped while some others are modified in their signification. Gleasondescribes the relationship between grammar and lexicon as that of class and member.
Grammar sets up classes and studies relationship between them. Dictionary deals with individual isolated items, words and morphemes called members and identifies the class to which a member belongs.
The practical dictionary is the flesh and blood dictionary compiled by the lexicographer and consulted by the readers for different purposes. The description of this dictionary is the subject matter of this book. The theoretical dictionary is the inbuilt dictionary of an individual speaker of a language.
It represents the semantic competence of the person and comprises the total stock of the words a person has acquired in his life. The speaker has this dictionary as an equipment enabling him to chose and use appropriate words in different structures and contexts. The theoretical dictionary or the lexicon of an individual is always changing.
Either new words are added, or some words are dropped or some new meanings are added to the existing words because of the needs of communication. It is in this sense that the lexicon is called an open-ended set. Another difference between the practical and the theoretical dictionary lies in the system of the 'arrangement' of lexical entries.
Whereas in the practical dictionary the entries are 'arranged' in some ordered form, in the theoretical dictionary the entries are in an unordered set. Each lexical entry in the theoretical dictionary is realized in actual speech by virtue of its three properties or characteristics viz.
The morphological characteristics specify the break up of the entry in terms of its different both inflectional and derivational.
The morphemic break shows the pronunciation and spelling of the entry. The syntactic features are describable in terms of the collocational and combinational possibilities of a word in larger constructions like sentences.
These features are marked by such specific parts of speech as noun, adjective or the secondary grammatical categories like transitive, intransitive of verbscount, mass of noun etc. The semantic characteristics relate to the bundle of semantic features of a lexical unit in terms of their oppositeness and contrastiveness.
On the basis of these specifications of the lexical entry, the speaker is able to 'create' or produce new words or derive new meanings from the existing words with the help of what is called lexical rules.
The lexical rules also explain the interrelationship between different lexical units in a language. The lexical rules account for the formation of new words in terms of the predictability of their acceptability or otherwise. The acceptability can be of three types: The lexical rules provide the background information about the actual acceptance of lexical units by giving clues for such acceptability.
Even among the actual accepted lexical units there are degrees of acceptedness. Some units are more commonly accepted whereas others are less commonly accepted.