Relationship between Henry VIII and Wolsey - Revision Notes in A Level and IB History
Henry VIII was only 17 years old when he acceded to the throne of England. of government under the control of his chief adviser, Cardinal Thomas Wolsey. Wolsey showed Henry VIII just how indispensable he was during the revenge on the Cardinal for breaking up her relationship with Henry. Created by: Thomas Cox; Created on: Fullscreen. Wolsey's Relationship with King Henry VIII. Wolsey's political relationship with the king -.
The first edition was finally available in April The publication of the Great Bible was one of Cromwell's principal achievements, the first authoritative version in English. A Parliamentary committee was established to examine doctrine, and the Duke of Norfolk presented six questions on 16 May for the House to consider, which were duly passed as the Act of Six Articles shortly before the session ended on 28 June. The Six Articles reaffirmed a traditional view of the Mass, the Sacraments, and the priesthood.
In early Octoberthe King finally accepted Cromwell's suggestion that he should marry Anne of Clevesthe sister of Duke Wilhelm of Clevespartly on the basis of a portrait which Hans Holbein had painted of her. On 27 December, Anne of Cleves arrived at Dover. On New Year's Daythe King met her at Rochester and was immediately repelled by her physically: Henry said that he found it impossible to enjoy conjugal relations with a woman whom he found so unattractive.
The King's anger at being forced to marry Anne of Cleves was the opportunity Cromwell's conservative opponents, most notably the Duke of Norfolk, needed to topple him.
However, the gradual slide towards Protestantism at home and the King's ill-starred marriage to Anne of Cleveswhich Cromwell engineered in Januaryproved costly. Some historians believe that Hans Holbein the Younger was partly responsible for Cromwell's downfall because he had provided a very flattering portrait of Anne which may have deceived the king. When Henry finally met her, the king was reportedly shocked by her plain appearance.
Thomas, Cardinal Wolsey | English cardinal and statesman | bornholm-sommerhus.info
In earlyCromwell's conservative, aristocratic enemies, headed by the Duke of Norfolk and assisted by Bishop Gardiner colloquially known as 'Wily Winchester'saw in Catherine Howard an opportunity to displace their foe. Cromwell was arrested at a Council meeting on 10 Juneaccused of a list of charges. He was imprisoned in the Tower. His enemies took every opportunity to humiliate him: A Bill of Attainder containing a long list of indictments, including supporting Anabaptistscorrupt practices, leniency in matters of justice, acting for personal gain, protecting Protestants accused of heresy and thus failing to enforce the Act of Six Articlesand plotting to marry Lady Mary Tudorwas introduced into the House of Lords a week later and passed on 29 June Anne, with remarkable common sense, happily agreed to an amicable annulment and was treated with great generosity by Henry as a result.
Hoping for clemency, Cromwell wrote in support of the annulment, in his last personal address to the King. Others who knew nothing but truth by him both lamented him and heartily prayed for him.
Elton describes as 'mystery' about Cromwell's demise. In Apriljust three months before he went to the block, he was created Earl of Essex and Lord Great Chamberlain. The arbitrary and unpredictable streak in the King's personality, which more than once exercised influence during his reign, had surfaced again and washed Cromwell away in its wake.
Inhe established the Court of Augmentations to handle the massive windfall to the royal coffers from the Dissolution of the Monasteries. Two other important financial institutions, the Court of Wards and the Court of First Fruits and Tenthsowed their existence to him, although they were not set up until after his death. He strengthened royal authority in the north of England, through reform of the Council of the Northextended royal power and introduced Protestantism in Ireland, and was the architect of the Laws in Wales Acts andwhich promoted stability and gained acceptance for the royal supremacy in Wales.
He also introduced important social and economic reforms in England in the s, including action against enclosuresthe promotion of English cloth exports and the poor relief legislation of For him, the Henrician Reformation was certainly more than a jurisdictional revolution masquerading in religious garb. For instance, in the mids, he promoted Protestant ideas to forge an alliance with German Lutheran states, but his support for the Protestant cause is too general to be accurately explained in narrow political terms.
He encouraged and supported the work of reformers, such as Robert Barnes and obtained the license to publish the Matthew's Bibleprovided significant funding for the printing of this English translation of the Bible and sent one to all parishes in England.
Although the charge was spurious, the fact that it was levelled at all demonstrates the reputation for evangelical sympathies Cromwell had developed. Elton portrayed Cromwell as the presiding genius, much more so than the king, handling the break with Rome and creating the laws and administrative procedures that reshaped post-Reformation England.
Elton wrote that Cromwell had been responsible for translating royal supremacy into parliamentary terms, creating powerful new organs of government to take charge of Church lands, and largely removing the medieval features of central government. Subsequent historians have agreed with Elton as to Cromwell's importance, though not with his claims of "revolution.
Justice[ edit ] As a legal administrator Wolsey reinvented the equity court, where the verdict was decided by the judge on the principle of "fairness".
As an alternative to the Common Law courts, Wolsey re-established the position of the prerogative courts of the Star Chamber and the Court of Chancery. The system in both courts concentrated on simple, inexpensive cases, and promised impartial justice. He also established the Court of Requests although this court was only given this name later on for the poor, where no fees were required. Wolsey's legal reforms were popular, and overflow courts were required to attend to all the cases.
Many powerful individuals who had felt themselves invincible under the law found themselves convicted; for example, inthe Earl of Northumberland was sent to Fleet Prison and in Lord Abergavenny was accused of illegal retaining. Wolsey also used his courts to tackle national controversies, such as the pressing issue of enclosures. The countryside had been thrown into discord by the entrepreneurial actions of landlords enclosing areas of land and converting from arable farming to pastoral farming, requiring fewer workers.
The Tudors valued stability, and this mass urban migration represented a serious crisis. Wolsey conducted national enquires inand into the presence of enclosures. In the course of his administration he used the court of Chancery to prosecute two hundred and sixty-four landowners, including peers, bishops, knights, religious heads, and Oxford colleges.
Enclosures were seen as directly linked to rural unemployment and depopulation, vagrancy, food shortages and, accordingly, inflation. This pattern was repeated with many of Wolsey's other initiatives, particularly his quest to abolish enclosure. Despite spending significant time and effort in investigating the state of the countryside and prosecuting numerous offenders, Wolsey freely surrendered his policy during the parliament of to ensure that Parliament passed his proposed taxes for Henry's war in France.
Enclosures remained a problem for many years. Wolsey used the Star Chamber to enforce his policy of Just Price, which attempted to regulate the price of meat in London and other major cities. Those found to be charging excessive amounts were prosecuted by the Chamber. After the bad harvest ofWolsey took the initiative of buying up surplus grain and selling it off cheaply to the needy. This act of generosity greatly eased disorder and became common practice after a disappointing harvest.
Church reforms[ edit ] Although it would be difficult to find a better example of abuses in the Church than the Cardinal himself, Wolsey appeared to make some steps towards reform.
In and he used his powers as papal legate to dissolve thirty decayed monasteries where monastic life had virtually ceased in practice, including monasteries in Ipswich and Oxford. In he began to limit the benefit of clergy. He also attempted, as legate, to force reform on monastic orders like the Augustinian canons. Relationships[ edit ] Wolsey's position in power relied solely on maintaining good relations with Henry.
He grew increasingly suspicious of the "minions" — young, influential members of the Privy chamber — particularly after infiltrating one of his own men into the group. He attempted many times to disperse them from court, giving them jobs that took them to the Continent and far from the King.
After the Amicable Grant failed, the minions began to undermine him once again. Consequently, Wolsey devised a grand plan of administrative reforms, incorporating the notorious Eltham Ordinances of One of Wolsey's greatest impediments was his lack of popularity amongst the nobles at court and in Parliament.
Henry VIII and Wolsey
Their dislikes and mistrusts partly stemmed from Wolsey's excessive demands for money in the form of the Subsidy or through Benevolences. They also resented the Act of Resumption ofby which Henry VII had resumed possession of all lands granted by the crown since Many nobles resented the rise to power of a low-born man, whilst others simply disliked that he monopolized the court and concealed information from the Privy Council.
When mass riots broke out in East Angliawhich should have been under the control of the Dukes of Norfolk and SuffolkHenry was quick to denounce the Amicable Grant, and began to lose faith in his chief minister. During the relatively peaceful period in England after the War of the Roses, the population of the nation increased. With more demand for food and no additional supply, prices increased.
Landowners were forced to enclose land and convert to pastoral farming, which brought in more profit. Wolsey's quest against enclosure was fruitless in terms of restoring the stability of the economy. The same can be said for Wolsey's legal reforms. By making justice accessible to all and encouraging more people to bring their cases to court, the system was ultimately abused.
The courts became overloaded with incoherent, tenuous cases, which would have been far too expensive to have rambled on in the Common Law courts.
Wolsey eventually ordered all minor cases out of the Star Chamber in The result of this venture was further resentment from the nobility and the gentry. Failures with the Church[ edit ] As well as his State duties, Wolsey simultaneously attempted to exert his influence over the Church in England.
As cardinal and, fromlifetime papal legate, Wolsey was continually vying for control over others in the Church. His principal rival was William Warhamthe Archbishop of Canterburywho made it more difficult for Wolsey to follow through with his plans for reform. Despite making promises to reform the bishoprics of England and Ireland, and, inencouraging monasteries to embark on a programme of reform, he did nothing to bring about these changes.
Henry VIII and Cardinal Wolsey
Wolsey's failure to secure the annulment directly caused his downfall and arrest. It was rumoured that Anne Boleyn and her faction convinced Henry that Wolsey was deliberately slowing proceedings; as a result, he was arrested inand the Pope decided that the official decision should be made in Rome, not England.
In Wolsey was stripped of his government office and property, including his magnificently expanded residence of Hampton Courtwhich Henry took to replace the Palace of Westminster as his own main London residence. However, Wolsey was permitted to remain Archbishop of York. He travelled to Yorkshire for the first time in his career, but at Cawood in North Yorkshirehe was accused of treason and ordered to London by Henry Percy, 6th Earl of Northumberland. In great distress, he set out for the capital with his personal chaplain, Edmund Bonner.
He fell ill on the journey, and died at Leicester on 29 Novemberaround the age of Just before his death he reputedly spoke these words: The expedition was a disaster.
Those who didn't die from illness, returned home with nothing accomplished. To wipe out the disgrace, Henry decided to invade France in person in Wolsey ensured that this expedition was well equipped, and it won the Battle of Spurs and captured the French town of Tournai. The English fought the French at Guinegate: More important than successes in France was the defeat of the Scots at the Battle of Flodden - 9th September The Scots took advantage of Henry's absence in France to invade with over 20, men.
The English were outnumbered, but better equipped and led. The Scots were completely defeated, suffering about ten thousand casualties - the dead included twelve earls and two bishops, and, above all, James IV himself. The English commander, the Earl of Surrey was rewarded with the restoration of his father's title - Duke of Norfolk. The French war brought England no permanent benefits.
Henry's allies made peace with France inand he had to follow suit. Inthe English agreed to hand back Tournai. One provision of the peace was the marriage of Henry's eighteen-year old sister, Maryto the fifty-two year old Louis XII. Louis was dead within a year.
Henry's foray into France cost a great deal of money; afterhe left foreign policy in the hands of Cardinal Wolsey. Like many men of humble origins in this period, he chose the church at the best route to personal advancement.
InWolsey became a member of King's Council; his talent and industry led to rapid promotion. A cheerful, friendly womaniser, he liked to show off his wealth and built Hampton Courtthe finest Tudor palace. A self-made man, Wolsey was contemptuous of those who weren't and vindictive if crossed; he was much resented by nobles.