Doctor Zhivago (film) - Wikipedia
Theirs is a relationship not based on reward or advantage, but on story, Lara's mother does not pimp her daughter to the lawyer Komarovsky, nor We are asking our US readers to help us raise $1 million dollars by the. Doctor Zhivago is a novel by Boris Pasternak, first published in in Italy. The novel is . On Komarovsky's advice, Amalia invests in a small dress shop. .. for their relationship lacks the fervor that was integral to his relationship to Lara. b Explain Komarovsky's importance in the lives of both h Yury and Tonya's relationship changes because j Komarovsky decides to help Lara and never .
Part 4[ edit ] Komarovsky uses his political connections to shield Lara from prosecution. Lara and Pasha marry, graduate from university, and depart by train for Yuriatin. The narrative moves to the second autumn of the First World War.
Yuri has married Tonya and is working as a doctor at a hospital in Moscow. Tonya gives birth to their first child, a son. Back in Yuriatin, the Antipovs also have their first child, a girl named Katenka. Although he loves Lara deeply, Pasha feels increasingly stifled by her love for him. In order to escape, he volunteers for the Imperial Russian Army. Lara starts to work as a teacher in Yuriatin. Some time later, she leaves Yuriatin and goes to a town in Galiciato look for Pasha.
The town happens to be where Yuri is now working as a military doctor. Antipov is taken prisoner by the Austro-Hungarian Armybut is erroneously declared missing in action. Wounded by artillery fire, Yuri is sent to a battlefield hospital in the town of Meliuzeevo, where Lara is his nurse. Galiullin the apprentice who was beaten in Part 2 is also in Lara's ward, recovering from injuries.
He is now a lieutenant in Pasha's unit; he informs Lara that Pasha is alive, but she doubts him. Lara gets to know Yuri better but is not impressed with him.
At the very end of this Part, it is announced in the hospital that there has been a revolution. Part 5[ edit ] After his recovery, Zhivago stays on at the hospital as a physician. This puts him at close quarters with Lara. They are both along with Galiullin trying to get permission to leave and return to their homes.
In Meliuzeevo, a newly arrived commissar for the Provisional Governmentwhose name is Gintz, is informed that a local military unit has deserted and is camped in a nearby cleared forest. Gintz decides to accompany a troop of Cossacks who have been summoned to surround and disarm the deserters. He believes he can appeal to the deserters' pride as "soldiers in the world's first revolutionary army. Gintz enters the circle of horsemen and makes a speech to the deserters.
His speech backfires so badly that the Cossacks who are there to support him gradually sheath their sabres, dismount and start to fraternize with the deserters. The Cossack officers advise Gintz to flee; he does; but he is pursued by the deserters and brutally murdered by them at the railroad station. Shortly before he leaves, Yuri says goodbye to Lara.
He starts by expressing his excitement over the fact that "the roof over the whole of Russia has been torn off, and we and all the people find ourselves under the open sky" with true freedom for the first time. Despite himself, he then starts to clumsily tell Lara that he has feelings for her.
Lara stops him and they part. A week later, they leave by different trains, she to Yuriatin and he to Moscow. On the train to Moscow, Yuri reflects on how different the world has become, and on his "honest trying with all his might not to love [Lara]. During the journey, he has an encounter with Army Commissar Strelnikov "The Executioner"a fearsome commander who summarily executes both captured Whites and many civilians.
Yuri and his family settle in an abandoned house on the estate. Over the winter, they read books to each other and Yuri writes poetry and journal entries. Spring comes and the family prepares for farm work. Yuri visits Yuriatin to use the public library, and during one of these visits sees Lara at the library. He decides to talk with her, but finishes up some work first, and when he looks up she is gone.
He gets her home address from a request slip she had given the librarian. On another visit to town, he visits her at her apartment which she shares with her daughter. She informs him that Strelnikov is indeed Pasha, her husband. During one of Yuri's subsequent visits to Yuriatin they consummate their relationship. They meet at her apartment regularly for more than two months, but then Yuri, while returning from one of their trysts to his house on the estate, is abducted by men loyal to Liberius, commander of the "Forest Brotherhood", the Bolshevik guerrilla band.
Parts 10 to 13[ edit ] Liberius is a dedicated Old Bolshevik and highly effective leader of his men. However, Liberius is also a cocaine addict, loud-mouthed and narcissistic. He repeatedly bores Yuri with his long-winded lectures about the glories of socialism and the inevitability of its victory. Yuri spends more than two years with Liberius and his partisans, then finally manages to escape. After a grueling journey back to Yuriatin, made largely on foot, Yuri goes into town to see Lara first, rather than to Varykino to see his family.
In town, he learns that his wife, children, and father-in-law fled the estate and returned to Moscow. From Lara, he learns that Tonya delivered a daughter after he left. Lara assisted at the birth and she and Tonya became close friends. Yuri gets a job and stays with Lara and her daughter for a few months. Eventually, a townsperson delivers a letter to Yuri from Tonya, which Tonya wrote five months before and which has passed through innumerable hands to reach Yuri. In the letter, Tonya informs him that she, the children, and her father are being deported, probably to Paris.
She says "The whole trouble is that I love you and you do not love me," and "We will never, ever see each other again. Part 14[ edit ] Komarovsky reappears. He offers to smuggle Yuri and Lara outside Soviet soil. They initially refuse, but Komarovsky states, falsely, that Pasha Antipov is dead, having fallen from favor with the Party. Stating that this will place Lara in the Cheka 's crosshairs, he persuades Yuri that it is in her best interests to leave for the East.
Yuri convinces Lara to go with Komarovsky, telling her that he will follow her shortly. Meanwhile, the hunted General Strelnikov Pasha returns for Lara. Lara, however, has already left with Komarovsky. After expressing regret over the pain he has caused his country and loved ones, Pasha commits suicide. Yuri finds his body the following morning.
Part 15[ edit ] After returning to Moscow, Zhivago's health declines; he marries another woman and fathers two children with her. He also plans numerous writing projects which he never finishes. Yuri leaves his new family and his friends to live alone in Moscow and work on his writing. However, after living on his own for a short time, he dies of a heart attack while riding the tram.
Meanwhile, Lara returns to Russia to learn of her dead husband and ends up attending Yuri Zhivago's funeral. One of their discussions revolves around a local laundress named Tanya, a bezprizornaya, or war orphan, and her resemblance to both Yuri and Lara.
Tanya tells both men of the difficult childhood she has had due to her mother abandoning her in order to marry Komarovsky. Much later, the two men meet over the first edition of Yuri Zhivago's poems. Background[ edit ] First Italian edition cover Although it contains passages written in the s and s, Doctor Zhivago was not completed until However, the editors rejected Pasternak's novel because of its implicit rejection of socialist realism.
Soviet censors construed some passages as anti-Soviet. The front cover and the binding identify the book in Russian; the back of the book states that it was printed in France. Pasternak sent several copies of the manuscript in Russian to friends in the West. The Communist Party of Italy expelled Feltrinelli from their membership in retaliation for his role in the publication of a novel they felt was critical of communism.
Central Intelligence Agency quickly realized that the novel presented an opportunity to embarrass the Soviet government.
An internal memo lauded the book's "great propaganda value": The CIA set out to publish a Russian-language edition and arranged for it to be distributed at the Vatican pavilion at the Brussels world's fair. A small run of copies of an adulterated Russian-language version which included typos and truncated story lines was printed by Mouton, a publisher in the Netherlands, in Augustbefore Feltrinelli came out with their own Russian version.
He repeats and adds additional details to Fetrinelli's claims that CIA operatives intercepted and photographed a manuscript of the novel and secretly printed a small number of books in the Russian language. While CAPE was known to engage in anti-Soviet activities, the printing of this edition was not an imposition of its own political will but rather a response to the spiritual demands of the Russian emigration that was greatly stirred by the release of Pasternak's novel in Italian without an original Russian edition.
I am firmly convinced that I shall be passed over and that it will go to Alberto Moravia. You cannot imagine all the difficulties, torments, and anxieties which arise to confront me at the mere prospect, however unlikely, of such a possibility One step out of place—and the people closest to you will be condemned to suffer from all the jealousy, resentment, wounded pride and disappointment of others, and old scars on the heart will be reopened The citation credited Pasternak's contribution to Russian lyric poetry and for his role in, "continuing the great Russian epic tradition".
On 25 October, Pasternak sent a telegram to the Swedish Academy: Infinitely grateful, touched, proud, surprised, overwhelmed. It was further hinted that, if Pasternak traveled to Stockholm to collect his Nobel Medal, he would be refused re-entry to the Soviet Union.
In view of the meaning given the award by the society in which I live, I must renounce this undeserved distinction which has been conferred on me. Please do not take my voluntary renunciation amiss. This refusal, of course, in no way alters the validity of the award. There remains only for the Academy, however, to announce with regret that the presentation of the Prize cannot take place.
Furthermore, he was threatened at the very least with formal exile to the West. In response, Pasternak wrote directly to Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev"Leaving the motherland will equal death for me.
Doctor Zhivago (novel) - Wikipedia
I am tied to Russia by birth, by life and work. As a result of this and the intercession of Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal NehruPasternak was not expelled from his homeland. The cartoon depicts Pasternak and another convict splitting trees in the snow.
In the caption, Pasternak says, "I won the Nobel Prize for literature. What was your crime? He first summoned his sons, and in their presence said, "Who will suffer most because of my death? Who will suffer most? Only Oliusha will, and I haven't had time to do anything for her.
The worst thing is that she will suffer. And there's a mist in front of my eyes. But it will go away, won't it? Don't forget to open the window tomorrow. There is no fairy-tale marriage. Eliot was tough on her heroine. Our sympathies are not straightforwardly directed, as they are in the TV version.
That Gwendolen breaks her promise to the abandoned Lydia Glaisher, not to marry Grandcourt, is a serious moral failure. On her ghastly wedding night, when she receives the returned diamonds from Lydia, we should feel the weight of Gwendolen's punishment, but also its justice.
She has betrayed another woman and she has betrayed herself. Loyalty between women is an important theme.
Theirs is a relationship not based on reward or advantage, but on compassion and affection. Like Charles Dickens, Eliot was keen to undermine the received views on legal ties and blood relations. The real families often turn out to be the pretend ones. Mirah becomes part of the Meyrick family, just as Deronda has become part of the Mallinger family. In contrast, Grandcourt refuses to recognise his obligation to his abandoned mistress Lydia, and he will not marry her, although she is the mother of his four children, and entirely dependent on him Gwendolen's failure is more than reneging on a promise; she fails to distinguish between legal and moral obligations, between "rights" and the duties of the heart.
It is a subtle argument, especially to a Victorian society obsessed with form and indifferent to feeling. It is an argument lost on TV, but crucial to the workings of the book. It is particularly relevant again now, as our own society becomes more and more litigious and less willing to take personal responsibility for how we live. For women, questions of loyalty and friendship are as pertinent as ever.
Desperately bad TV shows such as Mr Right, suggest that any woman should dump on her friend to get a man. That a woman might consider another woman's interest ahead of her own is not the stuff of soaps and magazines.
Lydia and Gwendolen damage each other fighting for the same man. Both are ruined by him. The novel offers a moral lesson without preaching. The TV version sensationalises a cliche. It is difficult to forgive Davies for what he has done to Doctor Zhivago. It is a mixture of soft porn and sentiment, and nowhere is this clearer than in the character of Lara, the woman whom Zhivago loves beyond life itself.
In Pasternak's story, Lara's mother does not pimp her daughter to the lawyer Komarovsky, nor does Lara offer herself up like a Lolitia. She is deeply ashamed and troubled by allowing herself to be seduced, and she moves away from home for three years in order to escape Komarovsky's attentions. Lara is political, well-read, and responsible - she saves her brother from debt, and supports the elderly parents of her childhood friend Pasha. She is also a first-rate shot.
How relevant are the heroines of Dr Zhivago and Daniel Deronda today?
You may not think that last point important, but when she shoots at Komarovsky and misses, it is a deliberate last-second decision - not the hopeless aim of the dippy useless Andrew Davies female. The Davies version handily misses out Lara's university education and graduation, and has her begging Pasha to marry her, when he says he's going off to take a teaching job.
According to Pasternak, they both graduate together, and both are offered jobs away from home. The original Lara is a wonderful creation. She supports herself financially while she puts herself through college, and she is definite in her aims and determined in her sense of self. She is a woman trapped in her time and caught in a revolution, but she moves beyond history, and past her own experience, to become what Zhivago calls the "representative" of life.
The great pity is that instead of meeting this woman, who has so much to tell us, on TV we meet a sexy pouting child who becomes a femme fatale. This was not Pasternak's interest nor his intention. The scale of Doctor Zhivago has been reduced to romantic intrigue.
Zhivago's wife, Tonya, is a good-natured cardboard cut-out, with so little personality that we are surprised he should love her, but not that he should leave her. This seriously unbalances the narrative, and without the huge sweep of social and political events to set her in context, it is difficult to respond to TV Tonya.
In the book, she offers a picture of self-sacrifice that many women will recognise. She earns our sympathy, not because she is pitiful, but because she is pitiable - and there is a big difference. It was a deliberate decision to reduce the scale of Zhivago, and to emphasise the relationships at the cost of the historical sweep of the book. Whether or not you think this is a misreading, is less important than its effect on the relationships.
Far from sharpening them for us, they seem to blur into any other triangular love-affair. The immensity of the historical moment changes everything. People will risk more, lose more, live harder, because they must.
Lara is not just driven by passion, she is driven by events. As a woman, her new scripting leaves her as a stereotype; women act for love.