- Of Men and Their Mothers: Challenging Freud's Theory
Titled "Our Mothers' Spirits: On the Death of Mothers and the Grief of The stories cover a range of mother-son relationships, from intimacy and. ing Pregnant and Becoming a Mother Impacts the Therapy. Relationship motherhood studies, psychoanalysis, feminism and social theory together. In encouraging .. to the importance of the mother-child relation, especially as it plays out. The Oedipus complex (also spelled Œdipus complex) is a concept of psychoanalytic theory. Freud considered that the child's identification with the same-sex parent is the successful outcome of the complex and . of Freudian psychology and the psychoanalytic treatment method, by collaborators and competitors alike.
After his father's death inand having seen the play Oedipus Rexby SophoclesFreud begins using the term "Oedipus".
As Freud wrote in an letter, "I found in myself a constant love for my mother, and jealousy of my father. I now consider this to be a universal event in early childhood. Proposes that Oedipal desire is the "nuclear complex" of all neuroses; first usage of "Oedipus complex" in Considers paternal and maternal incest. Complete Oedipus complex; identification and bisexuality are conceptually evident in later works.
Applies the Oedipal theory to religion and custom. Investigates the "feminine Oedipus attitude" and "negative Oedipus complex"; later the "Electra complex". It is in this third stage of psychosexual development that the child's genitalia is his or her primary erogenous zone ; thus, when children become aware of their bodies, the bodies of other children, and the bodies of their parents, they gratify physical curiosity by undressing and exploring themselves, each other, and their genitals, so learning the anatomic differences between "male" and "female" and the gender differences between "boy" and "girl".
Psychosexual infantilism—Despite mother being the parent who primarily gratifies the child's desiresthe child begins forming a discrete sexual identity—"boy", "girl"—that alters the dynamics of the parent and child relationship; the parents become objects of infantile libidinal energy. The boy directs his libido sexual desire upon his mother and directs jealousy and emotional rivalry against his father—because it is he who sleeps with his mother.
Moreover, to facilitate union with mother, the boy's id wants to kill father as did Oedipusbut the pragmatic egobased upon the reality principleknows that the father is the stronger of the two males competing to possess the one female. Nonetheless, the boy remains ambivalent about his father's place in the family, which is manifested as fear of castration by the physically greater father; the fear is an irrational, subconscious manifestation of the infantile id.
The first defense mechanism is repressionthe blocking of memories, emotional impulses, and ideas from the conscious mind; yet its action does not resolve the id—ego conflict. The second defense mechanism is identificationin which the boy or girl child adapts by incorporating, to his or her super ego, the personality characteristics of the same-sex parent.
As a result of this, the boy diminishes his castration anxietybecause his likeness to father protects him from father's wrath in their maternal rivalry. In the case of the girl, this facilitates identifying with mother, who understands that, in being females, neither of them possesses a penis, and thus are not antagonists. Therefore, the satisfactory parental handling and resolution of the Oedipus complex are most important in developing the male infantile super-ego.
This is because, by identifying with a parent, the boy internalizes Morality ; thereby, he chooses to comply with societal rules, rather than reflexively complying in fear of punishment.
Electra at the Tomb of Agamemnonby Frederic Leightonc. As with mother-son, once the incest taboos are established, a uniquely satisfying opposite-sex relationship can be built, although secret desires for the father can result in the girl feeling some guilt about the relationship.
Discussion There are three common threads in the Oedipus complex: The primacy of the desire for one-ness, the maternal embodiment of this and the necessity of paternal intervention. Historical Oedipus In the Greek play by Sophocles, Laius, king of Thebes, is told by an oracle that he would be killed by his son and so leaves Oedipus out on the mountainside to die.
Oedipus is rescued by a shepherd and taken to the king of Corinth who raises him as a son. Oedipus, in turn, is told by the Delphic oracle that he will kill his father and marry his mother.
Masochism and the inner mother.
Horrified by this, he flees Corinth. At a crossroads he meets Laius, quarrels and kills him. At Thebes, he correctly answers the sphinx's question and hence wins the hand of Jocasta, his real mother, with whom he had two sons and two daughters.
When at last the truth comes out, Jocasta hangs herself and Oedipus, finding her, blinds himself with her golden brooch.PSYCHOTHERAPY - Donald Winnicott
Electra was the daughter of Agamemnon who helped plan the murder of her mother. Freud Freud puts the Oedipal stage as occurring between years. He considers it a stage where the child experiences an erotic attachment to one parent and hostility toward the other parent. The ensuing triangular tension is seen as being the root of most mental disorders. Freud cites the incest taboo as as at the root of many other prohibitions.
He sees the struggle against this as a core part of this development period with transgressions in practice and phantasy. Freud, Freud links the Oedipus complex with development the superego, which uses guilt to prevent continuation of incestuously oriented relationships. Failure to get past this trigger point and into the symbolic order is considered to be a classic cause of lasting neurosis.
Lacan For Lacanthe mother is characterized by 'lack' of a phallus.
The pre-Oedipal child tries to make good the lack. But the mother desires the phallus that will cover over her division in language. The child then realizes its own lack, or 'castration' and seeks to speak or use words such that it can stand in for that which is missing.
Masochism and the inner mother.
The child can hence either speak itself from the position of 'having the phallus' or lacking it. Having a penis, boys are more likely to take the former position. However, taking this position requires living up to the god-like status of having the phallus. Note that Lacan considered that the Oedipal stage can be successfully navigated without the father, as long as cultural norms and prohibitions can be met, as it is these, rather than the father himself which facilitates the way through Rose Jacqueline Rose uses Lacan to show how sexual identity is acquired through the Oedipus crisis, rather than being something innate.
Klein Melanie Kleinthrough her work with young children, saw Oedipal conflict occurring much earlier than Freud and involving part-objects rather than whole parent-figures, and including infantile sadism. How early this starts has been questioned including a consideration that some version of the Oedipal stage occurring almost from the very beginning, at least in phantasy. She see emotional and sexual development occurring: Set in the context of a mother's death, the essays include writings by well-known American male writers such as John Updike, John Cheever and Wallace Stegner, along with original works by lesser known authors.
The stories cover a range of mother-son relationships, from intimacy and appreciation to alienation and bitterness. Collectively they expose the extent to which psychological and spiritual health in men, especially in the later years of life, depends upon their ability to retrieve the love and closeness they once felt for their mothers. Blauner began teaching a Berkeley course on men and masculinity inwhich has become the longest continuing course on men's lives at a major university.
Freud's theory of the Oedipus complex is a governing metaphor for masculine development, and the adult man who maintains a close relationship with his mother runs the risk of being stigmatized as a "mama's boy.
Oedipus complex - Wikipedia
Feminist writers have used Freudian theory in explaining how a boy's developing gender identity produces separation from the mother as well as from a feminine side of personalityand many argue that it lays the foundation for male dominance.
But apart from this negative imagery, little attention has been paid to the mother-son bond after adolescence.
It is not shared, said Blauner, with African-American or Asian men-at least, not according to these essays.
Herman Blake and Henry Louis Gates-never seem to have shifted identification away from their mothers," said Blauner. Yet, they grew up to be effective men in the world. A "mama's boy" the title he uses for his essayBlauner had experienced a close, loving relationship with his mother until he was in his late teens.
- Oedipus complex
- Oedipus Complex