Commensalism is a type of relationship where one of the organisms benefits greatly from the symbiosis. The other is not helped but is not harmed or damaged . Concept Protists play key roles in ecological relationships Describe one mutualistic symbiotic relationship and one parasitic relationship involving. Give examples of how protists act as primary producers Protists like zooxanthellae have a symbiotic relationship with coral reefs; the protists act as a including the fatal African sleeping sickness in humans; plasmodium: parasitic protozoa.
In terms of signalling theorythe mimic and model have evolved to send a signal; the dupe has evolved to receive it from the model. This is to the advantage of the mimic but to the detriment of both the model, whose protective signals are effectively weakened, and of the dupe, which is deprived of an edible prey. For example, a wasp is a strongly-defended model, which signals with its conspicuous black and yellow coloration that it is an unprofitable prey to predators such as birds which hunt by sight; many hoverflies are Batesian mimics of wasps, and any bird that avoids these hoverflies is a dupe.
Amensalism is an asymmetric interaction where one species is harmed or killed by the other, and one is unaffected by the other.
Competition is where a larger or stronger organism deprives a smaller or weaker one from a resource. Antagonism occurs when one organism is damaged or killed by another through a chemical secretion.
An example of competition is a sapling growing under the shadow of a mature tree. The mature tree can rob the sapling of necessary sunlight and, if the mature tree is very large, it can take up rainwater and deplete soil nutrients. Throughout the process, the mature tree is unaffected by the sapling. Indeed, if the sapling dies, the mature tree gains nutrients from the decaying sapling. An example of antagonism is Juglans nigra black walnutsecreting juglone, a substance which destroys many herbaceous plants within its root zone.
Whilst the presence of the grass causes negligible detrimental effects to the animal's hoof, the grass suffers from being crushed. Mutualistic relationships also occur in the deep ocean, between microbes and a wide range of animals including corals, tubeworms, and mussels. Many of these are found at cold seeps or at hydrothermal vents.
Sunlight cannot penetrate into the deep ocean, so the organisms that live there cannot do photosynthesis. They must rely on a different source of energy.
At cold seeps and hydrothermal vents, there are many chemicals that microbes can use to create food and energy.
Hydrogen sulfide the stuff that smells like rotten eggs and methane are two of the most common of these. Where hydrogen sulfide is present in the seafloor around cold seeps, tubeworms are often found growing in clusters of thousands of individuals. These unusual animals do not have a mouth, stomach, or gut. Instead, they have a large organ called a trophosome that contains billions of chemosynthetic bacteria. In some cases, the trophosome accounts for more than half the weight of the tubeworm.
The bacteria then use these materials plus carbon dioxide they take from the water to produce organic molecules.
Symbiosis - Wikipedia
A similar symbiotic relationship is found in clams and mussels that have chemosynthetic bacteria living in association with their gills. A variety of other organisms found in cold seep communities also use tubeworms, mussels, and hard and soft corals as sources of food or shelter or both.
They include snails, eels, sea stars, crabs, lobsters, isopods, sea cucumbers, and fishes. Some of these might be symbiotic interactions, but the specific relationships between these organisms and the other animals living around cold seeps have not been well studied.
Describe one mutualistic symbiotic relationship and one parasitic relationship involving protists.?
Microscopic Mutualism Mutualistic symbiosis also occurs between protists and bacteria or archaea, especially those that live in extreme environments. Protists are single-celled eukaryotes such as diatoms, foraminifera, and ciliates. Eukaryotic cells have a nucleus and other organelles surrounded by a membrane.
Plants, fungi, and animals are also eukaryotes.
Bacteria and archaea are prokaryotes, which are single-celled organisms that do not have a nucleus or other organelles surrounded by a membrane. DHABs are among the most extreme environments on Earth. Organisms living there face complete darkness, up to ten times the salinity of normal seawater, complete lack of oxygen, very high pressure, and in some cases, high levels of sulfide or methane, both of which are toxic for most eukaryotes, including protists.Extreme Animal Relationships - Earth Unplugged
All of the protists that have been collected from DHABs have bacteria closely associated with them.