Rainbow parrotfish symbiotic relationship

3 Types of Symbiosis by Emily Wallace on Prezi

rainbow parrotfish symbiotic relationship

Coral reefs are very complex ecosystems, but luckily managing them sustainably is not. Simply don't catch fish faster than they reproduce, don't. The flamboyant, algae-eating, sand-pooping, Parrotfish is the most important fish on Caribbean Photo: A.E. Johnson - Stoplight parrotfish dead in a gill net. relationship by grouping them in the same suborder, Labroidei (Nelson, ). Parrotfishes Fatty acids as biological markers for bacterial symbionts in sponges. .. Small-scale demographic variation in the stoplight parrotfish. Sparisoma.

Reef waters are typically very low in nutrients, so most coral animals can't filter out enough food to provide the extra energy they need. To make up for this deficiency, hermatypic corals shelter microscopic algae zooxanthellae within their tissues; in exchange, the algae supply the corals with carbohydrates so the corals have enough energy to build reefs.

rainbow parrotfish symbiotic relationship

Zooxanthellae pronounced "zoe-zan-thelly" are microscopic algae that live within the tissues of host animals, including hermatypic coral animals. Like all plants, zooxanthellae make their own food by a process called photosynthesis.

rainbow parrotfish symbiotic relationship

Using solar energy absorbed by special pigments, they transform carbon dioxide into carbohydrates and oxygen. What they don't need themselves passes directly into the coral's gut cavity, providing the extra energy the coral needs to produce a calcium carbonate exoskeleton. Some multicellular algae on the reef produce calcium carbonate limestone skeletons very similar to those made by hard corals.

rainbow parrotfish symbiotic relationship

These calcareous algae play a major role in barrier reef construction, acting as a sort of living mortar that holds together individual coral colonies.

Growing between corals and wrapping around the bases of branching corals, calcareous algae protect the corals from erosion, especially in high-energy areas. Individual coral colonies, especially branching corals, can easily be toppled in high-energy reef zones, such as the reef front and rock rim.

Waves can easily scour away sediments from a colony's base, uprooting it and pushing it along like tumbleweed. So how do branching corals ever get a solid foothold in such zones? Calcareous algae grow between corals and around their bases, preventing erosion and stabilizing the reef structure.

Evolution: Survival: Coral Reef Connections

On the reef, carnivores have diversified into many more species than have herbivores. Competition among carnivores has produced a treacherous environment for prey, in which hungry jaws lurk around every corner, during all hours of the day. To escape predation, some relatively defenseless herbivores, such as parrotfish Scarus spp. Goldlined rabbitfish Siganus lineatuslocally called spine-feet fish, are so named for the defensive venomous spines at the ends of each of their pelvic fins.

rainbow parrotfish symbiotic relationship

But spines are a last-ditch defense. To avoid being thrust into a risky spine-to-fang battle, rabbitfish employ their expert color-changing talents to avoid predator detection in the first place.

The Ramp Rules

Schools of rabbitfish thus provide an excellent refuge for their poorly defended relatives, the parrotfish. Nestling among the venomous stinging tentacles of a sea anemone seems like a very bad survival strategy -- unless you and the anemone have some kind of an arrangement.

Clown anemonefish Amphiprion akindynos and sea anemones have evolved just such a relationship. As juveniles, clownfish perform a ritual of "anemone rubbing. From then on, they defend each other, and clownfish have even been seen dragging food to their host anemone. Reef animals are masters of disguise, and sea anemones are no exception. Attached to the reef by a suction disc, tentacles swaying with the current, they are the animals perhaps most often mistaken as plants.

The illusion is further reinforced by the presence of two or more commensal clownfish among the tentacles. But the clownfish and anemone are a predatory team, working side by side and sharing food.

Symbiosis: Mutualism, Commensalism, and Parasitism

In addition, the clownfish fight off intruders, such as anemone-eating butterflyfish, and the stinging cells nematocysts of the anemone deter potential clownfish predators. Many reef animals that can't groom themselves, like the reef lizardfish Synodus variegatushave evolved to secrete a mucus coating. The mucus offers some protection against parasites and also reduces drag as they swim. Unfortunately, mucus itself is an attractive food to some parasites and bacteria.

What's a lizardfish to do? It visits a small cleaner fish, like the bluestreak wrasse, that gently eats away surface parasites from skin, mouth, and gills. The resident fish doctor and dentist on the reef is the bluestreak cleaner wrasse Labroides dimidiatus.

With an easily identifiable bright blue stripe and stereotypical behavior, the bluestreak attracts larger fish, like the reef lizardfish, to its cleaning station. As it makes a meal out of the larger fish's parasites, the bluestreak gently tickles its customers, a behavior that seems to bring them back again and again.

Sponge crabs Dromiidae family avoid predators by carrying a disguise with them at all times. Their posterior legs are modified for grasping, and the crabs use them to carry live Halichondria sponges on their backs. Since the sponges are toxic to most potential predators, the undercover crab doesn't have to worry about being attacked and can concentrate on more important things, like finding food. Many sea sponges have evolved chemical weaponry for use against other sessile organisms in the never-ending battle for space on the reef.

Since the compounds tend to be distasteful and often toxic to predators, the sponges avoid most predation. Sponge crabs exploit this defense by carrying live sea sponges on their backs.

And the sponges may benefit, too: By living atop a crab, they no longer have to battle for space. Local phylogenetic divergence and global evolutionary convergence of skull function in reef fishes of the family Labridae.

The families scaridae and labridae are very closely related, that is why in the figure above Chlorurus sordidus is seen as apart of the labridae family.

Home Habitat Nutrition Reprod

All of the species that stem of of scarines are different species of parrotfish. They all have the unique feature of fused teeth forming a beak, which is one of the reasons that they are grouped together. Off of the labridae, all of the sub-classifications are of wrasse fish. A wrasse fish is known to have a symbiotic relationship with a cleaner fish and is usually brightly colored; this describes Chlorurus sordidus perfectly.

Adaptations All fish are adapted for life in the water. Their skeletons are a more compact shape so that their bodies are more streamlined to move through the water. For respiration they have gills on the sides of their bodies which have water pushed through them by the mouth. Water, full of oxygen, flows over the gills and blood low in oxygen flows through the gills in the opposite direction.

A concentration gradient is made as the oxygen is diffused into the bloodstream.